Insight across mental disorders: A multifaceted metacognitive phenomenon.
Insight across mental disorders: A multifaceted metacognitive phenomenon. Psychiatriki. 2019 Jan-Mar;30(1):13-16 Authors: Konstantakopoulos G Abstract There is now general agreement that lack of insight is not merely a fundamental aspect of delusions and hallucinations, or just a symptom of psychotic disorders but rather a multi-dimensional construct. Several different components of insight have been proposed and empirically examined during the last three decades, such as the ability to recognize that one has a mental illness, the capacity to relabel unusual mental events as pathological, the specific attribution of one's symptoms to having a mental illness, awareness of illness' consequences, and compliance with treatment.1 Insight impairment is an important prognostic factor in schizophrenia, impacting negatively on medication adherence, treatment outcome, and social functioning.2 Although largely investigated in schizophrenia and other psychoses, insight impairments are observed in many, if not all, mental disorders. Varying levels of awareness of mental illness and/or of specific symptoms are expected in patients with bipolar disorders, Alzheimer disease and other neurocognitive disorders, obsessive-compulsive (OCD) and related disorders.1,3 While in DSM-5 an "insight" specifier was incorporated for OCD, body dysmorphic and hoarding disorder, patients' insight has been found ranging from good to absent in other disorders, such as depressive ...
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Conclusions Bitemporal ECT was well tolerated and effective in treating NMS refractory to pharmacotherapy. We suggest that ECT be considered early in cases of NMS that are refractory to pharmacological interventions, especially if the underlying condition is also responsive to ECT.
Discussion Although melancholically and nonmelancholically depressed patients differed significantly on several clinical characteristics, ECT outcome did not differ. Analyses may be hampered by a high prevalence of psychotic features. In nonpsychotic patients, CORE scores neared significance as predictor of remission, suggesting that CORE scores might be a distinguishing characteristic of melancholia in nonpsychotic patients and a clinical useful predictor of ECT response.
Conclusions The PDAS indeed accurately predicts response to and remission after ECT in (psychotic) depression and most pronouncedly so in older patients but seems to have no clear advantage over simply verifying the presence of psychotic symptoms. This could be the consequence of a ceiling effect, as ECT was extremely effective in patients with psychotic depression. ClinicalTrials.gov: Identifier: NCT02562846.
Conclusions Electroconvulsive therapy use appears to be substantially higher in China than in the United States and is associated with indicators of higher rather than lower functioning as reflected by independent associations with youth, employment, and fewer past hospitalizations, but also with behavioral noncompliance as reflected by involuntary admission, and has increased in recent years. Understanding United States–China discrepancies may further international understanding of the diverse roles of ECT in psychiatric practice.
Conclusions The risk of relapse after ECT is lower for patients with PPD and/or PPP than for patients outside the postpartum period, but the risk is nonetheless substantial in both groups.
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Conclusions Generalized, high-amplitude, CPCs during ECT are a previously uncharacterized ictal waveform during ECT, which may have important scientific and clinical value. These complexes offer a specific marker for correlating clinical outcomes in ECT and greater understanding of generalized tonic-clonic seizures.
Conclusions Our data suggest that the beneficial effects of high frequency dTMS of the PFC cannot be attributed solely to its antidepressant effects.
Discussion: In vivo observation of cerebral vasculature demonstrated the effectiveness of HFμDI for the preclinical study of AD, and a potential way for human diagnosis was provided.