Therapeutic Potential of Exogenous Ketone Supplement Induced Ketosis in the Treatment of Psychiatric Disorders: Review of Current Literature

Globally, psychiatric disorders, such as anxiety disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, depression, autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are becoming more prevalent. Although the exact pathological alterations are not yet clear, recent studies have demonstrated that widespread changes of very complex metabolic pathways may partially underlie the pathophysiology of many psychiatric diseases. Thus, more attention should be directed to metabolic-based therapeutic interventions in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. Emerging evidence from numerous studies suggests that administration of exogenous ketone supplements, such as ketone salts or ketone esters, generates rapid and sustained nutritional ketosis and metabolic changes, which may evoke potential therapeutic effects in cases of central nervous system (CNS) disorders, including psychiatric diseases. Therefore, the aim of this review is to summarize the current information on ketone supplementation as a potential therapeutic tool for psychiatric disorders. Ketone supplementation elevates blood levels of the ketone bodies: D-β-hydroxybutyrate (βHB), acetoacetate (AcAc), and acetone. These compounds, either directly or indirectly, beneficially affect the mitochondria, glycolysis, neurotransmitter levels, activity of free fatty acid receptor 3 (FFAR3), hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 2 (HCAR2) and histone deacetylase, as well as functioning of NOD-like receptor pyrin domai...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

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Objective: To compare the effects of a high-fidelity simulator and conventional teaching model used during blood pressure measurement training on students’ self-confidence, self-efficacy and anxiety levels. Methods: A randomized controlled trial design was used. The study was conducted on 59 first-year nursing students of a university in Amasya, Turkey. ‘Self-Confidence Scale,’ ‘general Self-Efficacy Scale’ and ‘Beck Anxiety Scale’ were used to collect the data. A high-fidelity simulator used in blood pressure measurement training was applied to the experimental group, while t...
Source: Blood Pressure Monitoring - Category: Cardiology Tags: Clinical Methods and Pathophysiology Source Type: research
ConclusionsFindings suggest that social anxiety is associated with an initial delay in attention disengagement from social threat that resolves over the course of repeated exposures to such stimuli. Treatment implications are discussed.
Source: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
On December 11, 2019, the National Center for Mobility Management and the Federal Transit Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, are providing a free webinar on transportation and mobility services for youth with autism transitioning out of high school.
Source: National Institute of Mental Health - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Source Type: news
Publication date: Available online 12 November 2019Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Yunyun Shen, Xuan Wang, Shenyuan Guo, Mengsheng Qiu, Gonglin Hou, Zhou TanABSTRACTThe myelin sheath is a plasma membrane extension that lines nerve fibers to protect, support and insulate neurons. The myelination of axons in vertebrates enables fast, saltatory impulse propagation, and this process relies on organelles, especially on mitochondria to supply energy. Approximately 99% of mitochondrial proteins are encoded in the nucleus. Since mitochondria play a central role in the energy production and metabolic pathways, which are esse...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 11 November 2019Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Yuting Liu, Han Yin, Huan Ma, Xueju Yu, Guihao Liu, Lan Guo, Qingshan GengAbstractIndividuals with anxiety disorder often exhibit as imbalance in response to stressors.We sought to explore the relationship between physiological as well as psychological responses under acute mental stress and the severity of the disease.20 Generalized Anxiety Disorder(GAD) patients (14 males,mean age 46 ± 10 years) were confronted with the stroop test,during which salivary-α-amylase(sAA),salivary cortisol,and heart rate varia...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
In this study we used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to (1) assess potential group differences between typically developing (TD) and ASD participants in motor cortical oscillatory activity observed on a simple button-press task and (2) to do so over a sufficiently broad age-range so as to capture age-dependent changes associated with development. Event-related desynchronization was evaluated in Mu (8–13 Hz) and Beta (15–30 Hz) frequency bands (Mu-ERD, Beta-ERD). In addition, post-movement Beta rebound (PMBR), and movement-related gamma (60–90 Hz) synchrony (MRGS) were also assessed in a cohort of 123 ...
Source: NeuroImage - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Authors: Savaş Şen Z, Taşar MA, Demirel Kaya F, Güneş A, Vezir E, Hızarcıoğlu Gülşen H Abstract Cryptosporidium spp. is one of the leading causes of parasitic diarrhea. It is the most common parasite in humans all over the world with Giardia. Cryptosporidium is an important cause of chronic diarrhea in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients. Patients with normal immune system may have an asymptomatic course or clinical presentation such as acute watery diarrhea without blood and persistent diarrhea. The severity and duration of the disease may be a re...
Source: Mikrobiyoloji Bulteni - Category: Microbiology Tags: Mikrobiyol Bul Source Type: research
In this report, a 60 years old woman with a past medical history of significant chronic kidney disease undergoing regular hemodialysis, chronic constipation and hepatitis B was admitted to our neurology clinic because of acute intracerebral hemorrhage. She had confusion and right hemiplegia in her neurological examination and required urinary catheterization due to immobilization. Red coloration was observed in urine on the tenth hospital day. Although this coloration was thought to be hematuria, according to urine examination it was not hematuria. Then urine color turned into purple within two days. The next day, because ...
Source: Mikrobiyoloji Bulteni - Category: Microbiology Tags: Mikrobiyol Bul Source Type: research
Conclusion: The study shows that nearly half of the T2DM patients that exhibited low level of functional health literacy had low diabetes self-management.  Our findings also show that gender significantly affects diabetes self-management in which odds are a lot higher among females than males with diabetes self-management. This study underscores the importance of proper counselling and education about diabetes control on both patients and family members. PMID: 31707414 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Saudi Medical Journal - Category: Middle East Health Tags: Saudi Med J Source Type: research
Conclusions: The prevalence of illness anxiety disorder among Saudi medical students is comparable to similar recent studies. Student counseling programs highlighting coping techniques, especially during the early study years, should be implemented. PMID: 31707412 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Saudi Medical Journal - Category: Middle East Health Tags: Saudi Med J Source Type: research
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