Noradrenergic terminal density varies among different groups of hypoglossal premotor neurons

Publication date: Available online 22 May 2019Source: Journal of Chemical NeuroanatomyAuthor(s): Caroline E. Boyle, Anjum Parkar, Amanda Barror, Leszek KubinAbstractIn obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients, contraction of the muscles of the tongue is needed to protect the upper airway from collapse. During wakefulness, norepinephrine directly excites motoneurons that innervate the tongue and other upper airway muscles but its excitatory effects decline during sleep, thus contributing to OSA. In addition to motoneurons, NE may regulate activity in premotor pathways but little is known about these upstream effects. To start filling this void, we injected a retrograde tracer (beta-subunit of cholera toxin-CTb; 5-10 nl, 1%) into the hypoglossal (XII) motor nucleus in 7 rats. We then used dual immunohistochemistry and brightfield microscopy to count dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH)-positive axon terminals closely apposed to CTb cells located in five anatomically distinct XII premotor regions. In different premotor groups, we found on the average 2.2-4.3 closely apposed DBH terminals per cell, with ˜60% more terminals on XII premotor neurons located in the ventrolateral pontine parabrachial region and ventral medullary gigantocellular region than on XII premotor cells of the rostral or caudal intermediate medullary reticular regions. This difference suggests stronger control by norepinephrine of the interneurons that mediate complex behavioral effects than of those med...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Related Links:

Whether indigenous or introduced, red deer (Cervus elaphus,left) now roam every continent except Antarctica. Females ( “hinds”) and males (“stags” or “harts”) segregate most of the year into bachelorette and bachelor groups, respectively. In preparation for autumn battles for a harem of hinds, each hart’s antlers (right) start growing in the spring before shedding by end of winter. Harder than bone, their antlers have been fashioned by humans into knives and other tools for thousands of years. Antler carvers learned rather quickly not to discard leftover horn into campfires because...
Source: Anesthesiology - Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research
AbstractLumbar puncture (LP) is a common way of collecting cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) both in the clinic and in research. In this extension of a study on the relationship between sleep deprivation and CSF biomarkers for Alzheimer ’s disease, we investigated CSF biomarker dynamics in relation to rebound sleep after sleep deprivation. Two LPs were performed within 3 days in 13 healthy volunteers. We noticed an unexpected sharp rise in biomarker concentrations in the second sample and therefore repeated the experiment, but w ithout sleep intervention, in four additional individuals. The findings were similar in thes...
Source: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Fifty years ago, an extraordinary group of pathologists, pediatricians, and epidemiologists met to address the limited research and numerous diagnoses applied to unexplained, largely sleep-related pediatric deaths. Their efforts led to the identificati...
Source: SafetyLit - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Age: Infants and Children Source Type: news
Last year, Vayyar Imaging, a leader in 4D imaging technology, announced its next-generation CMOS System on a Chip technology and made its first foray into remote patient monitoring with Walabot HOME. Vayyar’s latest announcement came out last w...
Source: Medgadget - Category: Medical Devices Authors: Tags: Exclusive Source Type: blogs
Publication date: January 2020Source: The Lancet Neurology, Volume 19, Issue 1Author(s): Swapan Dholakia, Nancy Collop
Source: The Lancet Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
BOSTON (CBS) — Nurses aren’t getting enough sleep, which may impact patient care and safety, according to a new study by NYU. Nurses usually don’t work a typical nine to five job, often working in 12-hour shifts and all hours of the day and night. And we know that irregular hours take a toll on circadian rhythms. Researchers at the NYU Rory Meyers College of Nursing surveyed more than 1,500 nurses, and found that they reported getting just under seven hours of sleep prior to a work day on average, but more than eight hours before a day off. That’s an hour and half less sleep before a work shift, and...
Source: WBZ-TV - Breaking News, Weather and Sports for Boston, Worcester and New Hampshire - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Boston News Health Healthwatch Syndicated CBSN Boston Syndicated Local Dr. Mallika Marshall Health News Nurses Sleep Source Type: news
This report describes an investigation into a pseudo-outbreak of Mycobacterium porcinum at a Wisconsin hospital.
Source: CDC Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report - Category: American Health Tags: Data & Statistics MMWR Morbidity Mortality Weekly Report Sleep Health Source Type: news
You're reading 7 Tips on How to Train Your Brain and Improve Your Memory, originally posted on Pick the Brain | Motivation and Self Improvement. If you're enjoying this, please visit our site for more inspirational articles. Our memory is the part of the brain where we encode, store and retrieve information. There are two types: our short term (or working memory) and long-term memory. Short-term memory is how we remember things temporarily, and it is thought that we can hold around seven items here at any one time. When we no longer need this information however, it leaves us – unless it makes it to our long-term me...
Source: PickTheBrain | Motivation and Self Improvement - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: career featured success memory wellbeing Source Type: blogs
Publication date: December 2019Source: British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Volume 57, Issue 10Author(s): Keval S.V. Shah, Mona Letafat, Claire Nightingale, Shamique Ismail, Michail Klontzas, Carlo Ferretti, Ian S. Stone, Ashraf Messiha, Manolis Heliotis
Source: British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery - Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research
Condition:   Moderate-to-severe Allergic Asthma Interventions:   Drug: Omalizumab;   Drug: Placebo Sponsor:   Genentech, Inc. Not yet recruiting
Source: - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
More News: Brain | Chemistry | Cholera | Neurology | Neuroscience | Obstructive Sleep Apnea | Respiratory Medicine | Sleep Apnea | Sleep Disorders | Sleep Medicine