Erythromycin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae: phenotypes, genotypes, transposons and pneumococcal vaccine coverage rates.

CONCLUSIONS: Multi-drug resistance among erythromycin-resistant S. pneumoniae isolates mainly occurs due to the horizontal spread of the Tn916 family of transposons. The majority of the transposon-carrying isolates are covered by 13- and 23-valent pneumococcal vaccines. Since serotype distribution and transposons in S. pneumoniae isolates may change over time, close monitoring is essential. PMID: 31116101 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

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CONCLUSIONS Pneumococcal meningitis is probably underdiagnosed and underreported in S ão Paulo. Differentiated rates of pneumococcal meningitis diagnosis and reporting in each microregion, according to the São Paulo Index of Social Responsibility, might explain our results.
Source: Revista de Saude Publica - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research
Natural genetic transformation via horizontal gene transfer enables rapid adaptation to dynamic environments and contributes to both antibiotic resistance and vaccine evasion among bacterial populations. In Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus), transformation occurs when cells enter competence, a transient state in which cells express the competence master regulator, SigX (σΧ), an alternative σ factor (σ), and a competence co-regulator, ComW. Together, ComW and σX facilitate expression of the genes required for DNA uptake and genetic recombination. SigX activity depends on ComW, as Δcom...
Source: Journal of Biological Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Gene Regulation Source Type: research
Conclusions: Serotype changes and emerging multidrug-resistant international clones were found in current study. lytA, ply, psaA, pavA, spxB, htrA and clpP may be good protein vaccine candidates. Long-term high-quality surveillance should be conducted to assess impact and effectiveness brought by vaccines, and provide a foundation for prevention strategies and vaccine policies.
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Vitamin A deficiencies and insufficiencies are widespread public health concerns in developing countries, and may be gaining prevalence in industrialized nations. To combat vitamin A deficiency (VAD), the World Health Organization recommends high-dose vitamin A supplementation (VAS) in children 6-59 months of age in locations where VAD is endemic. This practice has significantly reduced all-cause death and diarrhea-related mortalities in children, and may have in some cases improved immune responses toward pediatric vaccines. However, VAS studies have yielded conflicting results, perhaps due to influences of baseline vitam...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Conclusions: Because S. pneumoniae was the primary cause of invasive infections, pneumococcal vaccines may be considered as a preventive intervention in children with nephrotic syndrome. Additionally, penicillin can be used to prevent and treat pneumococcal infections in children with nephrotic syndrome in Bangladesh.
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research
Conclusions: This study provides a quantitative estimate of the total burden of IPD preventable by PCV7 and PCV13 vaccination programs in Australia. ARRs (compared with prevaccination) were significant but smaller than in Finland (122/100,000 for the combined outcome) and longer-term follow-up is required to determine the additional impact of PCV13 above that seen for PCV7. Country-specific studies are needed to accurately estimate the burden of pneumococcal disease preventable by vaccination and cost-effectiveness of PCV vaccination programs.
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Vaccine Reports Source Type: research
Abstract OBJECTIVE: To assess vaccination coverage and predictors of vaccination among a Canadian population of rheumatology patients in routine clinical care. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, consecutive adult patients presenting to a tertiary rheumatology clinic at the McGill University Health Center between May and September 2015 were asked to fill a survey on vaccination. Patients self-identified as having rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases (SARD), spondyloarthropathies (SpA), or other diseases (OD). Multivariate logistical regression analyses were performed to evalua...
Source: J Rheumatol - Category: Rheumatology Authors: Tags: J Rheumatol Source Type: research
Abstract Nosocomial infections have become alarming with the increase of multidrug-resistant bacterial strains of Acinetobacter baumannii. Being the causative agent in ~80% of the cases, these pathogenic gram-negative species could be deadly for hospitalized patients, especially in intensive care units utilizing ventilators, urinary catheters, and nasogastric tubes. Primarily infecting an immuno-compromised system, they are resistant to most antibiotics and are the root cause of various types of opportunistic infections including but not limited to septicemia, endocarditis, meningitis, pneumonia, skin, and wound s...
Source: Genomics Proteomics ... - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Front Cell Infect Microbiol Source Type: research
Abstract Patients with rheumatic diseases are at a higher risk for infections associated to the underlying pathology and immunosuppressive therapy. This fact leads to an increased morbidity and/or mortality. Effective vaccination is essential for the prevention of a significant number of these infections, namely influenza and pneumococcal vaccination. In our cohort, and despite current recommendations, vaccination rates are still low among patients with autoimune diseases, which is in agreement with the available literature. A greater effort from all physicians is required to improve these results and to make the ...
Source: Acta Reumatologica Portuguesa - Category: Rheumatology Authors: Tags: Acta Reumatol Port Source Type: research
Despite the high burden of pneumococcal disease, pneumococcal vaccine coverage continues to fall short of Healthy People 2020 goals. A quasi-experimental design was used to investigate the impact of pneumococc...
Source: BMC Health Services Research - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Research article Source Type: research
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