Long Noncoding RNAs in the Pathophysiology of Ischemic Stroke

AbstractIschemic stroke is an acute brain injury with high mortality and disability rates worldwide. The pathophysiological effects of ischemic stroke are driven by a multitude of complex molecular and cellular interactions that ultimately result in brain damage and neurological dysfunction. The Human Genome Project revealed that the vast majority of the human genome (and mammalian genome in general) is transcribed into noncoding RNAs. These RNAs have several important roles in the molecular biology of the cell. Of these, the long noncoding RNAs are gaining particular importance in stroke biology. High-throughput analysis of gene expression using methodologies such as RNA-seq and microarrays have identified a number of aberrantly expressed lncRNAs in the post-stroke brain and blood in experimental models as well as in clinical samples. These expression changes exhibited distinct temporal and cell-type-dependent patterns. Many of these lncRNAs were shown to modulate molecular pathways that resulted in deleterious as well as neuroprotective outcomes in the post-stroke brain. In this review, we consolidate the latest data from the literature that elucidate the roles and functions of lncRNAs in ischemic stroke. We also summarize clinical studies identifying differential lncRNA expression changes between stroke patients and healthy individuals, and genetic variations in lncRNA loci that are correlated with an increased risk of stroke development.
Source: NeuroMolecular Medicine - Category: Neurology Source Type: research

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Abstract INTRODUCTION: Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability, with the administration of reverse transcriptase-plasminogen activator (rtPA) improving outcomes in a time-dependent manner. Only 52.3% of our eligible stroke patients received rtPA within 60 minutes of arrival. We aimed to better the percentage of acute stroke patients receiving rtPA within 60 minutes of arrival at the emergency department (ED). METHODS: Results from the first year of a clinical practice improvement project, where quality improvement interventions were implemented, are presented. Primary outcome measure was percentage ...
Source: Singapore Medical Journal - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Singapore Med J Source Type: research
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a severe cerebrovascular disease with a high incidence, mortality and disability rate. Danhong injection (DHI) is beneficial for ischemic stroke, but is prohibited for ICH due to risk of bleeding. The present study aims to explore the potential therapeutic time window and molecular mechanism of DHI in a collagenase-induced ICH model in aged rats. DHI administration after ICH could significantly improve body weight and neurological deficits, and reduce the hematoma volume and brain water content when compared to the vehicle control. Furthermore, the protective effect of DHI administration o...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
ConclusionsPresent study illustrates effect of lercanidipine on neurometabolic alterations which might be mediated through its antioxidant, anti ‐inflammatory, vasodilatory and anti‐apoptotic property in MCAo model of stroke.
Source: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: The PSOM-SCS constitutes a valid tool for classifying overall neurological severity emphasizing function and encompassing the full range of severity in pediatric stroke. IMPACT: Arithmetic summing of the PSOM subscales scores to assess severity classification is inadequate.The prior severity classification using PSOM overestimates poor outcomes.Three distinct severity profiles using PSOM subscales are identified.The PSOM-SCS is in moderate to excellent agreement with other disability measures.PSOM-SCS offers a valid tool for classifying the overall neurological deficit severity. PMID: 32179868 [PubMed...
Source: Pediatric Research - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: Pediatr Res Source Type: research
Conclusion: FD 3-6 months after ischemic stroke is a risk equivalent to comorbidity of conventional vascular risk factors for the incidence of cardiovascular events and mortality of all-cause death. PMID: 32172677 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Top Stroke Rehabil Source Type: research
Despite the recent surge of therapeutic options in treating acute stroke, stroke remains a leading cause of adult mortality and disability.1,2 Late presentation beyond the therapeutic window poses the main obstacle to institute therapeutic reperfusion for acute ischaemic strokes with thrombolysis rates remaining as low as 1%-8% at most.3 Delay in presentation has been attributed to a lack of awareness among the general population of stroke, its risk factors, warning symptoms and treatment in both developed and developing countries.
Source: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases - Category: Neurology Authors: Source Type: research
Background: Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA, alteplase) within 4.5 hours of symptom onset decreases the rate of disability after acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Due to various reasons, alteplase remains underutilized in certain regions ( ∼3% in low- and middle-income countries). Aims: We aimed to estimate the alteplase utilization rate and identify the reasons for nonuse in Saudi Arabia. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed all patients admitted with suspected stroke in the past 24 hours to the stroke unit at King Abdulaziz Medica l City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from February 2016 to July 2018.
Source: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases - Category: Neurology Authors: Source Type: research
AbstractIschemic stroke (IS) is a major cause of mortality and disability. However, no reliable prognostic or diagnostic biomarker has been utilized to date. Here, we have evaluated the serum S100B concentration and miR-602 expression as potential biomarkers for IS. Fifty-two IS patients and 52 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers were enrolled. Blood samples were collected from all patients at the time of admission, 24 and 48  h later, at the time of discharge, and 3 months later. Real-time (RT) PCR was used to measure the serum level of miR602. We also measured the serum concentration of S100B using ELISA. A...
Source: Neurological Sciences - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Authors: Kaur G, Samar N, Sharma J, Pareek KK, Veerwal R, Kajla P, Raghuvendra Abstract Introduction: Cerebrovascular disorders (CVD) are increasing in prevalence and incidence in Indian population. Global burden of disease study shows that of the 9.4 million deaths in India, 619,000 were due to stroke. A matter of concern is that in the last two decades there is a significant increase in prevalence rate of stroke. Aim: To find the demographic characteristics along with clinico-radiological profile and of patients presenting with stroke in a tertiary care hospital in Rajasthan. Methodology: This cross secti...
Source: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India - Category: General Medicine Tags: J Assoc Physicians India Source Type: research
Abstract BACKGROUND: Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement (TAVR) has evolved as an alternative therapy to open AVR in most patients with aortic stenosis. Stroke associated with TAVR can be a devastating complication in the short-term, however, little is known regarding mid-term outcomes. METHODS: All patients undergoing TAVR from 2011-2018 were included. Modified Rankin Scales (mRS) as a measurement of stroke related disability were extracted for patients who had neurologic deficits. RESULTS: A total of 51 (4.3%) patients (out of 1193) developed neurologic events (NE) during study period (32 [2.7%] dis...
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Authors: Tags: Ann Thorac Surg Source Type: research
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