Chapter 7 - Use of nanotechnology in antimicrobial therapy
Publication date: 2019Source: Methods in Microbiology, Volume 46Author(s): Nitin Gupta, Divya Bharti Rai, Ashok Kumar Jangid, Hitesh KulhariAbstractNanotechnology has emerged as a tool for developing advanced therapies to control and combat infections. Antibiotic resistance and side effects are the latest challenges for development and application of available antimicrobials. Biocompatible nanomaterials confer potential strategies for preventing drug-resistance in microbes, basically by improving the therapeutic effect of current antimicrobial drugs. Nanotechnology-based carriers referred to as nanovehicles (NVs), have unique physicochemical properties such as ultra-small and controllable size, large surface area to volume ratio, high reactivity, and functionalize structure. The antimicrobial nanovehicles can facilitate and specifically target the antimicrobial drugs, thereby overcoming the above limitations of conventional antimicrobial therapy. In this book chapter, we describe the limitations of current antimicrobial therapy, advances in the delivery of antimicrobial drugs using nanovehicles and clinically approved nanomedicines for the treatment of microbial infections.
ConclusionThese data suggest that a combined 2 h infusion with a higher dosage of meropenem, including a loading dose, may be successful to achieve effective PK parameters.
AbstractThe aim of this study was to explore the relationship between the extent of microbiological testing and the frequency of antibiotic alteration in adults hospitalised with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). We retrospectively studied 283 immunocompetent patients hospitalised with CAP. Information on microbiological testing and prescribed antibiotics was obtained. Patients were grouped according to the number of different microbiological tests performed within the first 2 days of admission (0–5 tests). Alteration rates were compared between these groups. Antimicrobial alteration was defined as a switch a...
AbstractEarly appropriate antimicrobial therapy is crucial in patients with sepsis and septic shock. Studies often focus on time to first dose of appropriate antibiotics, but subsequent dosing is equally important. Our aim was to investigate the impact of fulfillment of early treatment, with focus on appropriate administration of first and second doses of antibiotics, on 28-day mortality in patients with community-onset severe sepsis and septic shock. A retrospective study on adult patients admitted to the emergency department with community-onset sepsis and septic shock was conducted 2012 –2013. The criterion &ldquo...
Casta ño et al. raise some question on the methodology of our recent paper investigating the usefulness of an antibiotic-free period prior to reimplantation in patients with Prosthetic Joint Infection (PJI) undergoing 2-stage procedure. Main questions are that the response rate obtained for patients unde rgoing definitive reimplantation after an antibiotic holiday period was lower than reported in their Literature analysis and that the difference reported was not attributable to the effect of continuous therapy, but to the surgical procedure (1).
We describe a case of CA-ECM in Portugal in an adult patient with discoid lupus erythematosus under immunomodulatory therapy. A 73-year-old woman was admitted to the emergency department with fever and altered mental status over 48 hours. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed 185 leukocytes/μL, including 85% neutrophils, hypoglycorrhachia (less than 5 mg/dL) and elevated protein of 423 mg/dL with positive culture for Escherichia coli. She was treated with ceftriaxone. Imaging studies also demonstrated spondylodiscitis and arthritis. She responded well to antimicrobial therapy and completed the treatment as an outpatient.
Condition: Ulcerative Colitis Interventions: Drug: amoxicillin, metronidazole and tetracycline; Drug: amoxicillin and tetracycline Sponsor: Wolfson Medical Center Not yet recruiting
Background: The need for antimicrobial therapies effective against multidrug resistant organisms for children remains unmet. Tigecycline shows antibacterial activity across a broad spectrum of bacteria and is approved for treating complicated skin and skin-structure infections, complicated intra-abdominal infections and, in the United States, community-acquired bacterial pneumonia for adult patients. No blinded, randomized phase 3 tigecycline clinical trials on neonates or children have been completed or planned. This review aimed to provide a comprehensive synthesis of all the existing data sources, both on-label and of...
CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with combination therapy of piperacillin/tazobactam and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole or a fluroquinolone was effective in this study, with low mortality rates being observed. PMID: 31199227 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
CONCLUSIONS: The results show an overall increase in bacterial resistance to antimicrobial agents and emphasize the importance of an antimicrobial susceptibility pattern in the selection of appropriate antibiotic(s) to institute the rational antibiotic therapy. PMID: 31184594 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
CONCLUSIONS: We found insufficient evidence from the literature to determine an effective strategy for antibiotic therapy for treating chronic BCC infection. PMID: 31194880 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]