Therapeutic opportunities in colon cancer: Focus on phosphodiesterase inhibitors

Publication date: Available online 21 May 2019Source: Life SciencesAuthor(s): Ankita Mehta, Bhoomika M. PatelAbstractDespite novel technologies, colon cancer remains undiagnosed and 25% of patients are diagnosed with metastatic colon cancer. Resistant to chemotherapeutic agents is one of the major problems associated with treating colon cancer which creates the need to develop novel agents targeting towards newer targets. A phosphodiesterase is a group of isoenzyme, which, hydrolyze cyclic nucleotides and thereby lowers intracellular levels of cAMP and cGMP leading to tumorigenic effects. Many in vitro and in vivo studies have confirmed increased PDE expression in different types of cancers including colon cancer. cAMP-specific PDE inhibitors increase intracellular cAMP that leads to activation of effector molecules-cAMP-dependent protein kinase A, exchange protein activated by cAMP and cAMP gated ion channels. These molecules regulate cellular responses and exert its anticancer role through different mechanisms including apoptosis, inhibition of angiogenesis, upregulating tumor suppressor genes and suppressing oncogenes. On the other hand, cGMP specific PDE inhibitors exhibit anticancer effects through cGMP dependent protein kinase and cGMP dependent cation channels. Elevation in cGMP works through activation of caspases, suppression of Wnt/b-catenin pathway and TCF transcription leading to inhibition of CDK and survivin. These studies point out towards the fact that PDE inh...
Source: Life Sciences - Category: Biology Source Type: research

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Contributors : Rui Kuang ; Wei ZhangSeries Type : OtherOrganism : Homo sapiensThe NanoString experiment were conducted on 59 cell lines including 12 ovary cell lines, 12 lung cell lines, 11 colon cell lines, 10 breast cell lines, 4 pancreas cell lines, 2 prostate cell lines, 2 stomach cell lines, and 6 cell lines of 6 other types of tissues. A total of 403 probes were customized to estimate the isoform expressions of 155 cancer genes curated from the literature with more reliable isoform annotations, where each of the 155 gene contains at least two isoforms.
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Other Homo sapiens Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 22 June 2019Source: Chemico-Biological InteractionsAuthor(s): Chandra Kishore, Sandhya Sundaram, Devarajan KarunagaranAbstractTumor recurrence and metastasis decrease the survival rate of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Menadione reduces the numbers and incidences of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine induced colon tumors in mouse but the mechanism of anticancer activity of menadione in colorectal cancer is not very clear. Since Wnt signaling is constitutively active in CRC and it aggravates the epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), the regulation of EMT and Wnt signaling by menadione (vitamin K3...
Source: Chemico Biological Interactions - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research
The American Heart Association and the FDA recommend that we all eat at least 25 grams of dietary fiber per day. But what is it, how do we know how much we’re eating, and where did that number come from, anyway? What are the types of fiber? Dietary fiber is a good carbohydrate, also known as roughage, found in plant foods (not supplements). There are two kinds, soluble or insoluble, and both are really good for us. Soluble fiber becomes a thick gel in our intestines, which slows digestion (which keeps blood sugars from spiking) and traps fats so they can’t all be absorbed (which lowers cholesterol levels). Sour...
Source: Harvard Health Blog - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Food as medicine Healthy Eating Heart Health Source Type: blogs
Conditions:   Cancer, Breast;   Cancer of Colon;   Cancer of Rectum;   Cancer Intervention:   Device: Plan to Thrive smartphone application Sponsors:   Northwestern University;   Vignet, Inc. Not yet recruiting
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
Each year, more people die of lung cancer than of colon, breast, and prostate cancers combined [1]. The American Cancer Society states that lung cancer is the second most common cancer and by far the leading cause of cancer death among men and women. The American Cancer Society estimates that there will be approximately 234,030 new cases of lung cancer in 2018 with 154,050 deaths from lung cancer [1].
Source: Journal of the American College of Radiology : JACR - Category: Radiology Authors: Tags: Case studies in clinical practice management Source Type: research
Background: Randomized control trials and population-based studies do not demonstrate a definitive benefit for adjuvant chemotherapy (ACT) in stage II colon cancer (CC). Tumor sidedness and microsatellite instability (MSI) status may predict response to ACT, but previous studies have limited microsatellite data. We assessed the efficacy of ACT and possible interaction with MSI status and tumor sidedness in patients with resected stage II CC diagnosed between 2010 and 2013 using the National Cancer Database. Materials and Methods: Overall survival was evaluated with the Kaplan-Meier method and multivariate and propensi...
Source: American Journal of Clinical Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Original Articles: Gastrointestinal Source Type: research
ConclusionIFN-I induces STAT3 activation to activateGzmb expression to enhance CTL effector function to suppress tumor development. Human colorectal carcinoma may use down-regulation of IFNAR1 on CTLs to suppress CTL effector function to evade host cancer immunosurveillance.
Source: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Long noncoding RNA SNHG15 enhances the development of colorectal carcinoma via functioning as a ceRNA through miR-141/SIRT1/Wnt/β-catenin axis. Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol. 2019 Dec;47(1):2536-2544 Authors: Sun X, Bai Y, Yang C, Hu S, Hou Z, Wang G Abstract Colon cancer, also known as colorectal carcinoma (CRC), remains to be one of the most mainsprings of cancer-produced deaths entire world. We planned to grab the role and possible biological cause of a long noncoding RNA, namely, small nucleolar RNA host gene 15 (SNHG15), in CRC. The mRNA level of SNHG15 in CRC tissues and cells was detected,...
Source: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine and Biotechnology - Category: Biotechnology Tags: Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol Source Type: research
CDx Diagnostics is on a mission to provide clinicians with tests and tools to preempt cancer through enhanced detection of precancerous cellular changes. The Suffern, NY-based company accomplishes this goal with WATS3, a diagnostic platform that synthesizes computer imaging, artificial intelligence, molecular biology and three-dimensional cytopathology to detect precancerous change earlier and more reliably than prior methods. MD+DI caught up with the company’s founder and CSO to discuss the evolution of the company and where it goes from here. MD+DI: Let’s talk a little bit about CDx D...
Source: MDDI - Category: Medical Devices Authors: Tags: IVD Source Type: news
Acromegaly results in a significantly increased morbidity and mortality due to cardiovascular and respiratory complications as well as malignancies arising mainly from the colon. Furthermore, an increased lifetime risk of malignant transformation of pre-malignant colonic lesions relates to a worse overall prognosis from colorectal cancer, which is currently considered a major disease related complication. In this review we provide some insight into colonic changes in this condition, summarise current knowledge and evidence on the use of colonoscopic screening in patients with acromegaly, and suggest a recommended screening protocol.
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
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