Sex differences in the expression of cell adhesion molecules on microvesicles derived from cultured human brain microvascular endothelial cells treated with inflammatory and thrombotic stimuli

AbstractBackgroundThere are sex differences in risk for stroke and small vessel ischemic disease in the brain. Microvesicles (MV) derived from activated cells vary by cell of origin and the stimulus initiating their release. MV released from cells activated by inflammatory and thrombotic factors have the potential to disrupt endothelial cells of the brain microvasculature. Therefore, experiments were designed to identify sex differences in the phenotype of MV released from cultured human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC) in response to inflammatory and thrombotic stimuli.MethodsCultured HBMEC derived from 20- to 30-year-old male and female donors were treated for 20  h with medium supplemented with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα; 20 ng/ml), thrombin (THR; 2 U/ml), or vehicle (i.e., control). MV were isolated from the conditioned media by high-speed centrifugation and quantified by digital flow cytometry by labeling with fluorophore-conjugated primary antibodies against PECAM-1, integrin αvβ3, ICAM-1, E-selectin, or MCAM. In addition, temporal uptake of labeled MV into control HBMEC was examined by confocal microscopy.ResultsUnder control conditions, male HBMEC released fewer MV expressing each antigen, except for PECAM-1, than female cells (P 
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - Category: Biology Source Type: research

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