Prohibitin: a prime candidate for a pleiotropic effector that mediates sex differences in obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic dysregulation

In conclusion, the sex-dimorphic metabolic and immune phenotypes of PHB-Tg and mPHB-Tg mice have revealed PHB as a pleiotropic effector of sex differences in adipose and immune functions. In this mini-review, we will discuss the pleiotropic attributes of PHB and potential mechanisms that may have contributed to the sex-dimorphic metabolic phenotypes in PHB-Tg and mPHB-Tg mice, which warrant future research. We propose that PHB is a prime candidate for a pleiotropic mediator of sex differences in adipose and immune functions in both physiology and pathophysiology, including obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic dysregulation.
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - Category: Biology Source Type: research

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We report that Spx, GalR2 and GalR3 mRNA levels were regulated by acute treatments of palmitate, a dietary saturated fatty acid, as well as the nitric oxide (NO) donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP), but through a pathway independent of cyclic GMP and protein kinase G. Additionally, the palmitate- and NO-mediated induction of Spx and galanin receptors was blocked with the PKC inhibitor k252c. Furthermore, palmitate induced mRNA levels of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers, including Chop, Grp78 and Bax/Bcl2, as well as C/ebp-β, whereas SNP induced Bax/Bcl2 and C/ebp-β. Transcriptional changes in Spx, GalR2, Ga...
Source: Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 13 November 2019Source: Clinica Chimica ActaAuthor(s): Xin Zeng, Yuan-jie Xie, Ya-ting Liu, Shuang-lian Long, Zhong-cheng MoAbstractPolycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex and heterogeneous endocrine disease characterized by clinical or laboratorial hyperandrogenism, oligo-anovulation and metabolic abnormalities, including insulin resistance, excessive weight or obesity, type II diabetes, dyslipidemia and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The most significant clinical manifestation of PCOS is hyperandrogenism. Excess androgen profoundly affects granulosa cell function and...
Source: Clinica Chimica Acta - Category: Laboratory Medicine Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 13 November 2019Source: Clinica Chimica ActaAuthor(s): Julia Oto, Álvaro Fernández-Pardo, Manuel Miralles, Emma Plana, Francisco España, Silvia Navarro, Pilar MedinaAbstractActivated protein C (APC) acts as an “on demand” anticoagulant, reducing thrombin formation. Reduced plasma levels of APC or protein C (PC) are associated with an increased risk of venous thromboembolism. APC also displays cytoprotective functions and its therapeutic use has been evaluated in severe sepsis and is under evaluation in several diseases with an important inflammatory compon...
Source: Clinica Chimica Acta - Category: Laboratory Medicine Source Type: research
ConclusionThe MHI reflects severity of comorbidity, enabling objective assessment of a bariatric patient ’s metabolic health state, regardless day of sampling and surgery type. Next to weight-focused outcome measures like %TWL, the MHI can serve as outcome measure for metabolic health.
Source: Obesity Surgery - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
ConclusionOur findings illustrate the unclear relationship between magnitude of individual response for a given outcome with training adherence and specific exercise exposure. These discordant and heterogeneous responses highlight the difficult nature of developing understanding for how individuals will respond to any given exposure. Further investigation into the biological, physiological, and genetics factors affecting individual responsiveness is vital to making personalized exercise medicine a reality.
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
Obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension are fundamental clinical manifestations of the metabolic syndrome. Studies over the last few decades have implicated chronic inflammation and microvascular remodeling in the development of obesity and insulin resistance. Newer observations, however, suggest that dysregulation of the lymphatic system underlies the development of the metabolic syndrome. This review summarizes recent advances in the field, discussing how lymphatic abnormality promotes obesity and insulin resistance, and, conversely, how the metabolic syndrome impairs lymphatic function. We also discu...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
. Sánchez-Oliver Francis Ries Unhealthy lifestyles, low levels of physical fitness, and adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD) are associated with bad quality of life and the development of a wide range of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The current study aimed to evaluate the level of adherence to the MD in physical fitness performance and body composition parameters in children and adolescents of Estonia. Therefore, 413 adolescents (56% boys) from the city of Tartu completed the Mediterranean Diet Questionnaire (KIDMED) for analyzing the adherence to MD and performed the Alpha Fitness Test for measuring ...
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
nut To investigate the anti-obesity potential of Antidesma bunius L. (MM), a Thai local fruit which is named “Mao Luang,” we have focused on the effects on pancreatic α-amylase and lipase enzyme activity and on adipocyte life cycle using the 3T3-L1 cell line as a model. In addition, the phytochemical composition and anti-oxidation potential were also analyzed using HPLC-PDA UV and colorimetric methods. The ethanolic extract of MM fruits prepared by a maceration method was used in the experiments. MM extract, yield 12.08% w/w, is composed primarily of phenolics and anthocyanins as the major...
Source: Molecules - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Source: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy - Category: Endocrinology Tags: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 8 November 2019Source: Food Research InternationalAuthor(s): Tao Wu, Yufang Gao, Junyu Hao, Jieting Geng, Jiaojiao Zhang, Jinjin Yin, Rui Liu, Wenjie Sui, Lingxiao Gong, Min ZhangAbstractThe present study investigated the anti-obesity effects and its mechanism of capsanthin (CAP) in high-fat diet-induced obese C57BL/6J mice. Compared with untreated mice on a high-fat diet for 12 weeks, CAP at 200 mg kg-1 reduced the body weight by 27.5%, significantly reversed glucose tolerance, effectively decreased the serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and trim...
Source: Food Research International - Category: Food Science Source Type: research
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