DNA damage and repair measured by comet assay in cancer patients

Publication date: Available online 20 May 2019Source: Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental MutagenesisAuthor(s): Pavel Vodicka, Sona Vodenkova, Alena Opattova, Ludmila VodickovaAbstractThe last decade witnessed an increase in the use of comet assay for DNA damage monitoring in cancer patients and controls. Apart from case-control studies, reports described the determination of DNA damage prior to (baseline value) and after chemo-/radiotherapy, the treatment resulted in significantly elevated DNA damage. However, studies on DNA damage as a factor reflecting cancer prognosis and therapy prediction are scarce. In most cases, DNA damage was analysed in surrogate tissues. The data on DNA damage are available for 17 types of cancer. The reviewed data unambiguously pinpoint the usefulness of the comet assay in human cancer research due to its sensitivity and cost-effectiveness in evaluating DNA damage associated with the disease and with the treatment.DNA repair capacity (DRC) represents a complex marker for functional evaluation of multigene DNA repair processes in cancer onset with future prospects in personalized prevention and/or cancer treatment. A comparison between studies and more general conclusions are precluded by a variable design of the studies and a lack of standard protocol for both DNA damage and DRC determination. Since cancer is a heterogeneous complex disease, numerous points have to be considered: a) DNA damage and DRC measured in surrogate/targ...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

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CONCLUSION: With the development of promising therapies to boost the innate immune response, there is significant potential for the expansion of the role of immunotherapy as an adjuvant to surgical treatment in colorectal cancer. PMID: 31216061 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: The British Journal of Surgery - Category: Surgery Authors: Tags: Br J Surg Source Type: research
Corrigendum to "DNA repair in personalized brain cancer therapy with temozolomide and nitrosoureas" [DNA Repair 78 (2019) 128-141]. DNA Repair (Amst). 2019 Jun 17;: Authors: Kaina B, Christmann M PMID: 31221561 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: DNA Repair - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: DNA Repair (Amst) Source Type: research
In this study, analysis of antioxidant defense was performed on the blood samples from 184 "aged" individuals aged 65-90+ years, and compared to the blood samples of 37 individuals just about at the beginning of aging, aged 55-59 years. Statistically significant decreases of Zn,Cu-superoxide dismutase (SOD-1), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were observed in elderly people in comparison with the control group. Moreover, an inverse correlation between the activities of SOD-1, CAT, and GSH-Px and the age of the examined persons was found. No age-related changes in glutathione reductas...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
The Role of Nonerythroid Spectrin αII in Cancer. J Oncol. 2019;2019:7079604 Authors: Ackermann A, Brieger A Abstract Nonerythroid spectrin αII (SPTAN1) is an important cytoskeletal protein that ensures vital cellular properties including polarity and cell stabilization. In addition, it is involved in cell adhesion, cell-cell contact, and apoptosis. The detection of altered expression of SPTAN1 in tumors indicates that SPTAN1 might be involved in the development and progression of cancer. SPTAN1 has been described in cancer and therapy response and proposed as a potential marker protein for ...
Source: Journal of Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Oncol Source Type: research
Conclusion: The proposed strategy can provide a facile and universal platform for the monitoring of DNA damage-related repair enzymes, holding great potential for DNA repair-related biochemical research, clinical diagnosis, drug discovery, and cancer therapy.
Source: Theranostics - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research
Aberrant function of cell cycle regulators results in uncontrolled cell proliferation, making them attractive therapeutic targets in cancer treatment. Indeed, survival of many cancers exclusively relies on these proteins, and several specific inhibitors are in clinical use. Although the ubiquitin-proteasome system is responsible for the periodic quality control of cell cycle proteins during cell cycle progression, increasing evidence clearly demonstrates the intimate interaction between cell cycle regulation and selective autophagy, important homeostasis maintenance machinery. However, these studies have often led to diver...
Source: Theranostics - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
Patients Selection for Immunotherapy in Solid Tumors: Overcome the Naïve Vision of a Single Biomarker. Biomed Res Int. 2019;2019:9056417 Authors: Signorelli D, Giannatempo P, Grazia G, Aiello MM, Bertolini F, Mirabile A, Buti S, Vasile E, Scotti V, Pisapia P, Cona MS, Rolfo C, Malapelle U, Group IY Abstract Immunotherapy, and in particular immune-checkpoints blockade therapy (ICB), represents a new pillar in cancer therapy. Antibodies targeting Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and Programmed Death 1 (PD-1)/Programmed Death Ligand-1 (PD-L1) demonstrated a relevant clinical value in a larg...
Source: Biomed Res - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Biomed Res Int Source Type: research
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Source: Cellular Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Fight Aging! provides a weekly digest of news and commentary for thousands of subscribers interested in the latest longevity science: progress towards the medical control of aging in order to prevent age-related frailty, suffering, and disease, as well as improvements in the present understanding of what works and what doesn't work when it comes to extending healthy life. Expect to see summaries of recent advances in medical research, news from the scientific community, advocacy and fundraising initiatives to help speed work on the repair and reversal of aging, links to online resources, and much more. This content is...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
It is well known that the present dominant approaches to cancer therapy - meaning toxic, damaging chemotherapy and radiotherapy, only slowly giving way to immunotherapy - produce a significant burden of senescent cells. Indeed, forcing active cancer cells into senescence is the explicit goal for many treatments, and remains an aspirational goal for a large fraction of ongoing cancer research. Most senescent cells self-destruct, or are destroyed by the immune system, but some always linger - and more so in older people, due to the progressive incapacity of the immune system. An immune system that becomes ineffective in supp...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs
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