An acetylation mimicking mutation, K274Q, in tau imparts neurotoxicity by enhancing tau aggregation and inhibiting tubulin polymerization
In this study, we have examined the molecular mechanism of the toxicity of acetylated K274-tau. We incorporated an acetylation mimicking mutation at K274 (K->Q) residue of tau. The mutation (K274Q) strongly reduced the ability of tau to bind to tubulin and also to polymerize tubulin while K274R mutation did not reduce the ability of tau either to bind or polymerize tubulin. In addition, K274Q-tau displayed a higher aggregation propensity than wild-type tau as evident from thioflavin S fluorescence, tryptophan fluorescence, and electron microscopic images. Furthermore, dynamic light scattering, atomic force microscopy, and dot blot analysis using an oligomer-specific antibody suggested that K274Q mutation enhanced the oligomerization of tau. The K274Q mutation also strongly decreased the critical concentration for the liquid–liquid phase separation of tau. The oligomeric forms of K274Q-tau were found to be more toxic than wild tau to neuroblastoma cells. Using circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy, we provide evidence indicating that the acetylation mimicking mutation (K274Q) induced conformational changes in tau. The results suggested that the acetylation of tau at 274 residues can increase tau aggregation and enhance the cytotoxicity of tau oligomers.
CONCLUSION: Our review suggests that MNPIs may improve the global, executive function and memory of PWD in NHs. The combination of exercise, cognitive training and activities of daily living, and intervention at least 3 times a week over at least 8 weeks with, at least 30 min per session using the integrated form is recommended for improving the global and specific cognitive functions of PWD in NHs. PMID: 31634894 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
This study aimed to verify findings in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) subjects from the network of the European, Innovative Medicines Initiative-funded project AETIONOMY. METHODS: A total of 227 samples from the studies/centres AETIONOMY, ICEBERG, and IDIBAPS were used to analyse 21 selected immunity biomarkers in CSF. Results were compared to data of an independent cohort of 399 subjects previously published. RESULTS: Immunity markers were predominantly and reproducibly associated with pathological levels of tau isoforms, but also with amyloid levels, agi...
CONCLUSIONS: The study demonstrates the high frequency of social cognition impairment 3 years after the first-ever stroke in young patients. Doctors and nurses should be sensitized to cognitive handicap after stroke because of difficulties for rehabilitation and returning to work. PMID: 31633560 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
DISCUSSION: Results suggest that combinations of nongenetic risk factors confer more risk for young onset vascular dementia, and possibly primary degenerative YOD, than a single factor on its own. Compared with their same-age peers, some people with YOD experience a lifetime of risk exposure starting from early in life. PMID: 31633559 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
CONCLUSIONS: The use of both prescription drugs and supplements increased over time, except for decreases in ginkgo and vitamin E. Prescription drug use appeared in line with prescribing guidelines. Supplement use was associated with higher education and better self-rated health; it persists despite a lack of supportive evidence. PMID: 31633558 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
DISCUSSION: On the basis of the findings, this study showed evidence that increase in NPS burden (reflected by increase in NPI) over time predicts conversion to AD, whereas stability of symptoms (reflected by stable NPI score) favors nonconversion. Further study should investigate the underlying mechanisms that drive both NPS burden and cognitive decline. PMID: 31633557 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
DISCUSSION: These findings demonstrate that SMCs are associated with lower scores on objective neuropsychological measures among older AAs. Additional work is needed to determine whether SMCs are further associated with a risk for clinical transition to mild cognitive impairment or dementia among AA older adults. PMID: 31633556 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
CONCLUSIONS: In elderly individuals with T1DM, we found associations between dLOC and cognition overall and in men but not women. Underlying sex differences should be considered in future research or interventions on psychosocial characteristics for cognition. PMID: 31633555 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
In humans, oxidative stress is involved in the development of diabetes, cancer, hypertension, Alzheimers' disease, and heart failure. One of the mechanisms in the cellular defence against oxidative stress is the activation of the Nrf2-antioxidant response element (ARE) signalling pathway. Computation of activity, efficacy, and potency score of ARE signalling pathway and to propose a multi-level prediction scheme for the same is the main aim of the study as it contributes in a big amount to the improvement of oxidative stress in humans. Applying the process of knowledge discovery from data, required knowledge is gathered an...
Abstract The intraneuronal aggregates of hyperphosphorylated and misfolded tau (neurofibrillary tangles, NFTs) cause a stereotypical spatiotemporal Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression that correlates with the severity of the associated cognitive decline. Kinase activity contributes to the balance between neuron survival and cell death. Hyperactivation of kinases including the conventional protein kinase C (PKC) is a defective molecular event accompanying associative memory loss, tau phosphorylation, and progression of AD or related neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we investigated the ability of small therapeutic...