Exploring effects of single-session anodal tDCS over the inferior frontal gyrus on responses to food cues and food cravings among highly disinhibited restrained eaters: A preliminary study

Publication date: Available online 20 May 2019Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Shuaiyu Chen, Todd Jackson, Debo Dong, Xuemeng Zhang, Hong ChenAbstractAccording to the hedonic-inhibitory model, overeating occurs when active inhibitory capacities mediated by the prefrontal areas are overridden by hedonic-eating motivation mediated by the mesolimbic reward system. The inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) has a crucial role in inhibiting hedonic-cues response yet transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) studies have emphasized the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), to the neglect of other executive network regions including the IFG. Therefore, we investigated modulating effects of single session tDCS over the right IFG on behavior response inhibition to external food cues and subjective food cravings among highly disinhibited restrained eaters (REs), a group susceptible to overeating and overweight. Within a randomized blinded between-groups design; participants (N = 57) received a single session of real or sham tDCS over the right IFG. Compared to peers in the sham condition, those who received tDCS stimulation showed higher levels of response inhibition toward external food cues on a post-intervention stop-signal task. Conversely, stimulation had no effects on subjective food cravings. Overall, results suggested tDCS targeting the right IFG has potential utility in treating disinhibited REs. However, because effects were isolated to increasing response in...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

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Publication date: August 2019Source: Molecular Immunology, Volume 112Author(s): Elizabeth A. Bemis, Jill M. Norris, Jennifer Seifert, Ashley Frazer-Abel, Yuko Okamoto, Marie L. Feser, M. Kristen Demoruelle, Kevin D. Deane, Nirmal K. Banda, V. Michael HolersAbstractRheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a complex autoimmune disease with an etiology that is not yet well understood, disproportionally affects women and also varies in incidence and prevalence by population. The presence of anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA) is a highly specific biomarker for the diagnosis of clinically apparent RA. ACPA are also present in the ...
Source: Molecular Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Abstract Although the life-course concept of risk markers as potential etiological influences is well established in epidemiology, it has not featured in academic publications or clinical practice in the context of chronic widespread pain (CWP) and fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). Studies of risk markers are required considerations for evaluation of patients and for research because there is no single cause, pathological feature, laboratory finding, or biomarker for CWP or FMS. The early-life risk markers identified by extensive literature review with best evidence for potential causal influence on the development and...
Source: Pain Research and Management - Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Tags: Pain Res Manag Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 15 June 2019Source: Life SciencesAuthor(s): P.N. Soares, R.A. Miranda, T.C. Peixoto, F.A.H. Caramez, D.G. Sabino, A.C. Manhães, E. de Oliveira, E.G. de Moura, P.C. LisboaAbstractAimsMaternal smoking is considered a risk factor for childhood obesity. In a rat model of tobacco exposure during breastfeeding, we previously reported hyperphagia, overweight, increased visceral fat and hyperleptinemia in adult female offspring. Obesity and eating disorders are associated with impairment in the endocannabinoid (EC) and dopaminergic (DA) systems. Considering that women are prone to eating d...
Source: Life Sciences - Category: Biology Source Type: research
Authors: Kubota M Abstract Recent evidence suggests that hyperuricemia is an important condition in children and adolescents, particularly in association with noncommunicable diseases. This review aims to summarize our current understanding of this condition in pediatric patients. An analysis of serum uric acid reference values in a healthy population indicates that they increase gradually with age until adolescence, with differences between the sexes arising at about 12 years of age. This information should be taken into consideration when defining hyperuricemia in studies. Gout is extremely rare in childre...
Source: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism - Category: Nutrition Tags: J Nutr Metab Source Type: research
Conclusions The SIT intervention increased total lean mass, decreased fat mass, and increased aerobic fitness of postmenopausal women after only 8 h of actual exercise over 8 wk.
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research
Authors: Kwon YD, Ko KO, Lim JW, Cheon EJ, Song YH, Yoon JM Abstract BACKGROUND: Transient elastography (FibroScan®) is a non-invasive and rapid method for assessing liver fibrosis. While the feasibility and usefulness of FibroScan® have been proven in adults, few studies have focused on pediatric populations. We aimed to determine the feasibility and usefulness of FibroScan® in Korean children. METHODS: FibroScan® examinations were performed in 106 children (age, 5-15 years) who visited the Konyang University Hospital between June and September 2018. Liver steatosis was measured in terms of the...
Source: Journal of Korean Medical Science - Category: Biomedical Science Tags: J Korean Med Sci Source Type: research
Conclusions:Modeling neck circumference while allowing for differences by Mallampati class showed a nearly threefold increase in the risk of SDB with increasing neck circumference in women with Mallampati class 1. Other potential sites of airway obstruction need to be investigated in future research.Citation:Bourjeily G, Chambers A, Salameh M, Bublitz MH, Kaur A, Coppa A, Risica P, Lambert-Messerlian G. Anthropometric measures and prediction of maternal sleep-disordered breathing.J Clin Sleep Med. 2019;15(6):849–856.
Source: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine : JCSM - Category: Sleep Medicine Source Type: research
ConclusionsMusculoskeletal problems are the main occupational health problems experienced by the study group. New findings include a low but important prevalence of ultraviolet radiation–associated conditions. One in 3 guides have experienced significant psychological trauma, and one quarter of these had symptoms of PTSD.
Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine - Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research
Publication date: October 2019Source: Safety Science, Volume 118Author(s): Dingzhou FeiAbstractEmotion is a state that combines people's feelings, thoughts, and behaviors and plays an important role in the communication between people. Emotional recognition is the automatic identification of a person's emotional state by acquiring a person's physiological or non-physiological signals to achieve a more friendly and natural human-computer interaction. Similarities between the spread of infectious diseases and behavioral phenomena have been observed in large social networks. Accordingly, a framework for the spread of social p...
Source: Safety Science - Category: Occupational Health Source Type: research
Conclusions: Among NBNC-HCC patients, heavy alcohol use or any other identifiable cause was not found in 38.0%. These NBNC-NA-NO HCC patients showed a high prevalence of HBcIgG positivity and metabolic risk factors, suggesting that prior hepatitis B virus infection and metabolic risk factors may be major contributing factors in the hepatocarcinogenesis in NBNC-NA-NO patients. PMID: 31189301 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Tags: Korean J Intern Med Source Type: research
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