Immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy and myocarditis: a systematic review of reported cases

ConclusionMost cases and fatalities of myocarditis occurred shortly after initiation of immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy. Arrhythmias, particularly complete heart block, appear to be related to the occurrence of more severe and fatal cases. The use of serial electrocardiograms or biomarkers of myocardial injury may be crucial in detecting early stages of the disease process. Further research establishing more specific guidelines is necessary in dealing with this potentially fatal side effect.
Source: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

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Conclusions: We suggest some distinct molecular mechanisms for production of IL-1β in innate immune cells from patients with different clinical forms of Chagas disease. MMP-2 and MMP-9 gelatinases are associated with distinct disease outcomes and IL-1β production. Introduction Chagas disease, also known as American trypanosomiasis, is a neglected parasitic disease caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi (1), that affects millions of people in the world (2). During the acute phase, a diffuse and intense inflammation in the cardiomyocytes is observed, which is composed mainly of neutrophils, monocytes, and ...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Whereas PROSTVAC was safe and well tolerated, it had no effect on OS or AWE in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Combination therapy is currently being explored in clinical trials. PMID: 30817251 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Clinical Prostate Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: J Clin Oncol Source Type: research
Authors: Michel L, Rassaf T, Totzeck M Abstract Progress in cancer therapy over the past decades improved long-term survival but increased cancer therapy-related cardiotoxicity. Many novel treatment options have been implemented with yet incompletely characterized cardiovascular side effects including heart failure, coronary artery disease, arrhythmias, valvular disease, venous thromboembolism and myocarditis. Diagnosis of potential cardiotoxic side effects is essential for an optimal treatment but remains challenging. Cardiac biomarkers troponin and brain natriuretic peptide/N-terminal proBNP (BNP/NT-proBNP) have ...
Source: Journal of Thoracic Disease - Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: J Thorac Dis Source Type: research
Authors: Manolis AA, Manolis TA, Mikhailidis DP, Manolis AS Abstract INTRODUCTION: Cancer patients are subject to cardiotoxic effects of cancer therapy and as more patients survive cancer due to improved treatment they are exposed to various forms of cardiovascular (CV) disease (CVD) as they age, and vice-versa. Such an interplay of age with both malignancy and CVD may contribute to increased morbidity and mortality. Areas covered: This review considers the effects of cancer drug treatment on the CV system. In Part I of this review, the various types of CV and cardiometabolic toxicity of anti-cancer drugs and the p...
Source: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Drug Saf Source Type: research
ConclusionsImmune checkpoint inhibitors are associated with cardiotoxicity. Because of the high case fatality rate, close surveillance and prompt empiric therapy for cardiovascular complications of checkpoint inhibitors should be considered. Aggressive treatment with immunosuppressive agents and/or plasmapheresis might lead to clinical improvement and increased survival.RésuméContexteLes inhibiteurs de points de contrôle immunitaire, par exemple ceux dirigés contre la Programmed Cell Death Protein-1 (PD-1), le Programmed Cell Death Ligand-1 (PD-L1) et l’antigène-4 des lymphocytes cyt...
Source: Canadian Journal of Cardiology - Category: Cardiology Source Type: research
The current arsenal of cancer chemotherapy is broad and rapidly expanding and includes conventional cytotoxic agents and targeted and immune-based therapies. As cancer survival rates have improved, the acute and latent cardiotoxicities of chemotherapy have emerged as important contributors to morbidity and mortality in cancer survivors. All chemotherapeutic agents have the potential for cardiac complications, with manifestations ranging from subclinical left ventricular dysfunction and asymptomatic QT prolongation, to congestive heart failure, myocardial ischemia, myocarditis, arrhythmia, and sudden cardiac death. Efforts ...
Source: Cardiology in Review - Category: Cardiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research
Publication date: April 2018 Source:Clinica Chimica Acta, Volume 479 Author(s): Zhe Chen, Lu He, Lanfang Li, Linxi Chen The P2X7 purinergic receptor, a calcium permeable cationic channel, is activated by extracellular ATP. Most studies show that P2X7 receptor plays an important role in the nervous system diseases, immune response, osteoporosis and cancer. Mounting evidence indicates that P2X7 receptor is also associated with cardiovascular disease. For example, the P2X7 receptor activated by ATP can attenuate myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. By contrast, inhibition of P2X7 receptor decreases arrhythmia after myocar...
Source: Clinica Chimica Acta - Category: Laboratory Medicine Source Type: research
Abstract The P2X7 purinergic receptor, a calcium permeable cationic channel, is activated by extracellular ATP. Most studies show that P2X7 receptor plays an important role in the nervous system diseases, immune response, osteoporosis and cancer. Mounting evidence indicates that P2X7 receptor is also associated with cardiovascular disease. For example, the P2X7 receptor activated by ATP can attenuate myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. By contrast, inhibition of P2X7 receptor decreases arrhythmia after myocardial infarction, prolongs cardiac survival after a long term heart transplant, alleviates the dilated c...
Source: International Journal of Clinical Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Clin Chim Acta Source Type: research
AbstractImmune checkpoint inhibitors have demonstrated significant clinical benefit in many cancers. The clinical benefit afforded by these treatments can be accompanied by a unique and distinct spectrum of adverse events. Recently, several fatal cases of immune checkpoint inhibitor-related myocarditis were reported. Although its frequency is comparatively lower than that of other immune-related adverse events, myocarditis can lead to circulatory collapse and lethal ventricular arrhythmia. Immune checkpoints, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), play important roles in estab...
Source: Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 14 March 2017 Source:Trends in Anaesthesia and Critical Care Author(s): Marco Cascella Cardiotoxicity is a serious side effect of some common cancer treatments. Although the cardiotoxic potential of anthracycline and trastuzumab is well known, many other chemotherapeutic agents can produce clinical and subclinical heart injury in the course of chemotherapy or after days, weeks or years after completion of chemotherapy. Consequently, patients with confirmed cardiotoxicity attributable to chemotherapy should be treated as high risk for potential cardiac events during anaesthesia. Because c...
Source: Trends in Anaesthesia and Critical Care - Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research
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