Detection of Leptospire spp. in animals and in environmental samples from peridomestic areas in NicaraguaDetec ção de Leptospira spp. em animais e em amostras ambientais de áreas peridomiciliares na Nicarágua.

The objective of this study was to determine the epidemiological characteristics of leptospirosis in pets and in humans in peridomestic settings in Nicaragua between 2014 and 2016. Methods: The samples were taken in areas where cases were confirmed in humans using non-probabilistic sampling in 10 of the country's 17 departments. This included 112 urine samples from pets, 129 water samples, and 69 soil samples in order to isolate leptospires in Ellinghausen-McCullough-Johnson-Harris (EMJH) medium. Furthermore, the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) was applied to 263 samples of animal serum, and 88 isolates were analyzed using PCR. Results: In 32.6% (101/310) of the samples, spirochetes were isolated: 23.2% (26/112) in the pet urine, 47.3% (61/129) in water samples, and 20.3% (14/69) in soil samples. Isolation analysis showed significant differences (p
Source: Pan American Journal of Public Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Rev Panam Salud Publica Source Type: research

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Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 550: Chikungunya Virus Infections in Military Deployments in Tropical Settings—A Narrative Minireview Viruses doi: 10.3390/v11060550 Authors: Hagen Frickmann Ottmar Herchenröder Chikungunya fever is a vector-borne viral disease in subtropical and tropical areas of endemicity. Apart from the burden on local populations, chikungunya virus infection also poses a risk for travelers and, in particular, soldiers during prolonged deployment-associated outdoor activities. The absence of rapid diagnostic tests makes surveillance challenging during military deployments in war and crisis z...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
Publication date: May 2019Source: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease, Volume 26, Issue 3Author(s): Emmanuel A. BurdmannThe genus Flavivirus comprises approximately 73 viruses, which share several common aspects, such as dimension, structure, nucleic acid properties, and shape in electronic microscopy. Global incidence of flavivirus infection increased dramatically over the last decades, causing large outbreaks in several areas of the world. These viruses are expanding from endemic tropical and subtropical areas to previously nonendemic areas, affecting and causing diseases in millions of individuals worldwide and posing a ...
Source: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease - Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research
rio N, ARBOALVO Network Abstract Aedes spp. are considered the main vectors of dengue (DENV), Zika (ZIKV) and chikungunya (CHIKV) viruses in the world. Arbovirus detection in Aedes mosquitoes can alert authorities to possible outbreaks, reducing the impact of these diseases. The purpose of this study was to perform an operational strategy for virological surveillance of DENV, ZIKV and CHIKV in adult Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes captured at different key-sites in an endemic urban area of the Northeast Region of Brazil, with the prospect of discussing its role as part of an alert system for outbreak...
Source: Acta Tropica - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 6 June 2019Source: Veterinary MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Shehnaz Lokhandwala, Vlad Petrovan, Luca Popescu, Neha Sangewar, Catherine Elijah, Ana Stoian, Matthew Olcha, Lindsey Ennen, Jocelyn Bray, Richard P. Bishop, Suryakant D. Waghela, Maureen Sheahan, Raymond R.R. Rowland, Waithaka MwangiAbstractAfrican Swine Fever Virus (ASFV) causes a hemorrhagic disease in swine and wild boars with a fatality rate close to 100%. Less virulent strains cause subchronic or chronic forms of the disease. The virus is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa and an outbreak in Georgia in 2007 spread to Armenia, Russia, U...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
by Laura Botana, Ana Victoria Ibarra-Meneses, Carmen S ánchez, Alicia Castro, Juan Victor San Martin, Laura Molina, Jose Manuel Ruiz-Giardin, Eugenia Carrillo, Javier Moreno Concomitant infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and theLeishmania parasite is a growing public health problem, the result of the former spreading to areas where the latter is endemic.Leishmania infection is usually asymptomatic in immunocompetent individuals, but the proportion of HIV+ individuals in contact with the parasite who remain asymptomatic is not known. The aim of the present work was to examine the use of cytokine relea...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
t N Abstract Switzerland is aiming to eliminate measles, in line with the objectives of the World Health Organization (WHO). Physicians, laboratories and public health authorities have made great efforts to reach this goal. A continually increasing measles vaccination coverage and other preventive measures have made an impact: no major measles outbreak has been recorded since 2011. In order to evaluate progress towards elimination, measles epidemiology of a previous epidemic period (2007–2011) was compared with the current post-epidemic period (2012–July 2018) by analysis of data from the mandatory not...
Source: Swiss Medical Weekly - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Swiss Med Wkly Source Type: research
This report describes new clinical cases of RMSF and epidemiologic investigations. Medical records were reviewed, and fieldwork, serological and molecular diagnostic testing, and bacterial isolation were performed. Fever, hypotension, abdominal discomfort, and rash accompanied by thrombocytopenia and leukopenia were the most characteristic manifestations. Two convalescent sera from the index case and sera from two dogs revealed high anti-spotted fever group Rickettsia antibody titers. Rickettsia rickettsii was isolated from case 4. Cases 2 and 3 were identified by epidemiological connection with the index case. Thus, a new...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research
Abstract rVSVΔG-ZEBOV-GP vaccine is a live recombinant (r) vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), where the VSV G protein is replaced with the Zaire Ebola virus (ZEBOV) glycoprotein (GP). For vaccine immunogenicity testing, clinical trial sera collected during an active ZEBOV outbreak underwent gamma irradiation (GI) before testing in biosafety level 2 laboratories to inactivate possible wild-type ZEBOV. Before irradiating pivotal trial samples, two independent studies evaluated the impact of GI (50 kGy) on binding ZEBOV-GP (ELISA) antibodies against rVSVΔG-ZEBOV-GP, using sera from a North American phase 1...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research
Africa could be declared free of endemic"wild" polio early next year if a strain last seen in Nigeria almost three years ago does not resurface, the World Health Organization's Africa director said on Tuesday.Reuters Health Information
Source: Medscape Orthopaedics Headlines - Category: Orthopaedics Tags: Infectious Diseases News Source Type: news
Publication date: Available online 28 May 2019Source: EpidemicsAuthor(s): Brooke A. Bozick, Colin J. Worby, C. Jessica E. MetcalfAbstractRubella virus causes mild disease in children but for women in the early stages of pregnancy, it can cause spontaneous abortion, congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) and associated birth defects. Despite the availability of an effective vaccine, rubella virus continues to circulate endemically in several regions of the world. This is particularly true in East and Southeast (E/SE) Asia, where control efforts vary widely among countries that are well connected through travel and immigration. I...
Source: Epidemics - Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research
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