A systematic review of economic evaluations of interventions to tackle tuberculosis in homeless people.

Conclusions: No high-quality data were found on cost-effectiveness of interventions on TB diagnostics/screening, treatment, or prevention in homeless people. However, active searching for cases via mobile screening, and financial incentives, could help increase treatment adherence, and the use of IGRA helps boost detection. TB in homeless people is neglected worldwide, especially in developing countries, where this disease tends to afflict more people made vulnerable by their precarious living conditions. Public funding mechanisms should be created to develop cross-sectoral actions targeting homeless people, as the complex dynamics of this group tend to hamper prevention and diagnosis of TB and the completion of TB treatment. PMID: 31093068 [PubMed]
Source: Pan American Journal of Public Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Rev Panam Salud Publica Source Type: research

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Abstract Global burden of latent TB infection comprises one-third of the world population. Identifying potential Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) latency associated antigens that can generate protective immunity against the pathogen is crucial for designing an effective TB vaccine. Usually the immune system responds to a small number of amino acids as MHC Class I or Class II peptides. The precision to trigger epitope specific protective T-cell immune response could therefore be achieved with synthetic peptide-based subunit vaccine. In the present study we have considered an immunoinformatic approach using availabl...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research
Bacillus Calmette Guérin (BCG) is the only currently available vaccine against tuberculosis (TB), but it confers incomplete and variable protection against pulmonary TB in humans and bovine TB (bTB) in cattle. Insights into the immune response induced by BCG offer an underexploited opportunity to gain knowledge that may inform the design of a more efficacious vaccine, which is urgently needed to control these major global epidemics. Humoral immunity in TB and bTB has been neglected, but recent studies supporting a role for antibodies in protection against TB has driven a growing interest in determining their relevan...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
We report the case of a six-monthold male infant with a history of having received the BCG vaccine at birth, and presenting repeated infectious, soft violet nodules in the trunk and extremities with the presence of acid-alcohol-resistant bacilli (BAAR) in histopathology and skin culture; the molecular study reported the presence of Mycobacterium bovis BCG. In the tomography, interstitial opacities were observed in the lungs and in the gastric lavage BAAR was identified. The genetic study of the patient and the mother revealed the presence of a mutation in the IL2RG gene confirming the diagnosis of severe combined immunodef...
Source: Revista Peruana de Medicina de Experimental y Salud Publica - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica Source Type: research
SOCS1 Antagonist-Expressing Recombinant Bacillus Calmette-Guérin Enhances Antituberculosis Protection in a Mouse Model. J Immunol. 2019 May 17;: Authors: Mizuno S, Soma S, Inada H, Kanuma T, Matsuo K, Yasutomi Y Abstract Suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) plays a key role in the negative regulation of JAK/STAT signaling, which is involved in innate immunity and subsequent adaptive immunity. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) induces upregulation of SOCS1 expression in host cells, which may lead to the suppression of immune responses by BCG via inhibition of the JAK/STAT signaling pat...
Source: Journal of Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: J Immunol Source Type: research
The current limitations of conventional BCG vaccines highlights the importance in developing novel and effective vaccines against tuberculosis (TB). The utilization of probiotics such as Lactobacillus plantarum f...
Source: BMC Biotechnology - Category: Biotechnology Authors: Tags: Methodology article Source Type: research
Conditions:   BCG Vaccination Reaction;   Tuberculosis Interventions:   Biological: GC3107;   Biological: Intradermal BCG SSI inj. Sponsor:   Green Cross Corporation Not yet recruiting
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
Tuberculosis (TB) is the ninth leading cause of death worldwide and the leading cause from a single infectious agent. Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is the only licensed vaccine for TB, yet its efficacy remain...
Source: BMC Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Research article Source Type: research
Efficient tuberculosis (TB) control depends on early TB prediction and prevention. Solution to these tasks requires knowledge of TB protection correlates (TB CoPs), i.e., laboratory markers that are mechanistically involved in the protection and which allow to determine how well an individual is protected against TB or how efficient the candidate TB vaccine is. The search for TB CoPs has been largely focused on different T-helper populations, however, the data are controversial, and no reliable CoPs are still known. Here we discuss the role of different T-helper populations in TB protection focusing predominantly on Th17, ...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Antonella Riccomi1, Giovanni Piccaro2, Dennis Christensen3, Carla Palma1, Peter Andersen3 and Silvia Vendetti1* 1Department of Infectious Diseases, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy 2Notified Body, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy 3Department of Infectious Diseases Immunology, Statens Serum Institute, Copenhagen, Denmark Most microbes invading through mucosal surfaces cause disease and therefore strategies to induce mucosal immune responses are strongly needed. Vitamin A metabolites, such as retinoic acid (RA), play crucial roles in programming T and B cells to home to mucosal compa...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Despite widespread BCG vaccination and effective anti-TB drugs, Tuberculosis (TB) remains the leading cause of death from an infectious agent worldwide. Several recent publications give reasons to be optimistic about the possibility of a more effective vaccine, but the only full-scale clinical trial conducted failed to show protection above BCG. The immunogenicity of vaccines in humans is primarily evaluated by the systemic immune responses they generate, despite the fact that a correlation between these responses and protection from TB disease has not been demonstrated. A novel approach to tackling this problem is to stud...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
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