Is air pollution a potential cause of neuronal injury?

CONCLUSION: Gluconeogenesis was induced in human neural cells exposed to fine particles (DEP), in association with cell damage and oxidative stress. These findings suggest that the pathogenesis of cerebrovascular injury due to fine particle pollutant exposure may proceed through derangements in gluconeogenic metabolism. ABBREVIATIONS: DEP: diesel exhaust particles, ICA: intracranial atherosclerosis, ROS: reactive oxygen species. PMID: 31099309 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Neurological Research - Category: Neurology Tags: Neurol Res Source Type: research

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This study investigates whether METH induces autophagy in the human dopaminergic neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y, then examines the neuroprotective effects of gastrodin against autophagy in METH-treated SH-SY5Y cells. The effects of METH on the protein expressions of autophagy-related genes (LC3B and Beclin-1) were evaluated with and without gastrodin. The presence of autophagosomes in the METH-induced treatment with and without gastrodin is revealed through transmission electron microscopy. Pharmacological intervention was employed to study the role of the AKT/mTOR signaling pathway in the gastrodin-mediated neuroprotecti...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Conclusions and Perspectives In this review, we have discussed important milestones from the early description of “Serum-sickness” as being due to antibodies directed against Neu5Gc epitopes all the way to the present-day therapeutic implications of these antibodies in cancer therapy. Some of these milestones have been represented in a concise timeline (Figure 6). While the “Xenosialitis” hypothesis is well-supported in the human-like mouse models, it has yet to be conclusively proven in humans. It remains to be seen if “Xenosialitis” plays a role in other uniquely-human diseases. FI...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Conclusion: These results suggest intelectin-1 promotes angiogenesis, inhibits oxidative stress and reduces apoptosis by stimulating the Akt-eNOS signaling pathway in response to ischemia in vitro. Introduction Stroke is a main reason of human neurological disability, ischemic stroke (IS) accounts for almost 80–90% of all strokes. IS occurs after a cerebral blood flow disruption, leading to cellular death and tissue damage by restricting glucose and oxygen supplies (1). Ischemic vascular diseases cause substantial vascular valve and vascular endothelial cell injuries, eventually damaging the surrounding tissu...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Conclusion The expression of the components of the PTN-MK-RPTPβ/ζ axis in immune cells and in inflammatory diseases suggests important roles for this axis in inflammation. Pleiotrophin has been recently identified as a limiting factor of metainflammation, a chronic pathological state that contributes to neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Pleiotrophin also seems to potentiate acute neuroinflammation independently of the inflammatory stimulus while MK seems to play different -even opposite- roles in acute neuroinflammation depending on the stimulus. Which are the functions of MK and PTN in chronic neuroinfla...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
ConclusionSNHG1 likely acts as a useful tumour biomarker for cancer diagnosis, prognosis and treatment.
Source: Clinica Chimica Acta - Category: Laboratory Medicine Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: SNHG1 likely acts as a useful tumour biomarker for cancer diagnosis, prognosis and treatment. PMID: 30849309 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: International Journal of Clinical Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Clin Chim Acta Source Type: research
Abstract Emerging evidence has suggested a significant role of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in ischemic stroke by acting as competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) for microRNAs (miRNAs) to regulate certain RNA transcripts. AK038897 is an lncRNA that was reported to be upregulated in rat brains in response to transient focal ischemia. We aimed to investigate the possible regulatory role of AK038897 in ischemic stroke. We detected increased AK038897 and decreased miR-26a-5p levels in mouse brains following middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (MCAO/R) and in neuro-2A (N2a) neuroblastoma cells following oxygen-...
Source: Experimental Neurology - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Exp Neurol Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of Neurochemistry - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Publication date: December 2018Source: Biomedicine &Pharmacotherapy, Volume 108Author(s): Banudevi Sivanantham, UmaMaheswari Krishnan, Vignesh RajendiranAbstractIncreasing studies have implicated superfluous production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a significant factor in the progress of neurodegenerative disorders ranging from ischemic stroke to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The possible mechanisms relating to oxidative stress and neurodegeneration are yet to be thoroughly understood. Rutin, a flavonoid, has been well documented for its beneficial and pharmacological activities against diverse targets. However,...
Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
In this study, we found that miR-181b expression was significantly decreased in N2A neuroblastoma cells after CoCl2-induced hypoxic injury in vitro. We further found, via western blot analysis and quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay, that altering miR-181b expression could induce changes in one of its target proteins, cylindromatosis (CYLD). Specifically, upregulation and downregulation of miR-181b (through transfection of either pre- or small interfering miR-181b, respectively) could negatively regulate CYLD protein levels as well as N2A cell survival rate and apoptosis following CoCl2-induced injury. Furthermore...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research
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