No gene communication of HA gene between the human H3N2 and H1N1 pandemic 2009 influenza A viruses

Recently, a study in this journal suggested that the 2014 H1N1 pandemic 2009 (H1N1/pdm2009) had gene communication with 2016/2017 H3N2.1 The influenza A H1N1/pdm2009 virus, a novel swine-derived, triple reassortant virus, was rapidly transmitted between humans and spread to 168 countries, resulting in over 123,000 human deaths globally from March to December 2009.2,3 Since then, it has replaced the previous seasonal H1N1 and circulated as a seasonal virus along with the H3N2 virus, posing substantial risks to human populations,4 creating an opportunity for coinfection and therefore recombination or reassortment between them.
Source: Journal of Infection - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

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Abstract Swine are reservoirs for anthropogenic/zoonotic influenza viruses, and the prevalence and repeated introduction of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza virus (pdm/09) into pigs raises the possibility of generating novel swine influenza viruses with the potential to infect humans. However, studies aiming to identify miRNAs involved in the transfer of novel swine influenza virus infection to human cells are rare. In this investigation, from the view of small RNA, microarrays and high-throughput sequencing were used to detect differentially expressed miRNAs and mRNAs after human lung epithelial cells were infect...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research
Mark K. Slifka1* and Ian J. Amanna2 1Division of Neuroscience, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Oregon Health &Science University, Beaverton, OR, United States2Najít Technologies, Inc., Beaverton, OR, United States Vaccines play a vital role in protecting our communities against infectious disease. Unfortunately, some vaccines provide only partial protection or in some cases vaccine-mediated immunity may wane rapidly, resulting in either increased susceptibility to that disease or a requirement for more booster vaccinations in order to maintain immunity above a protective level. The durability of a...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Recently, a study in this journal suggested that the 2014 H1N1 pandemic 2009 (H1N1/pdm2009) had gene communication with 2016/2017 H3N2 1. The influenza A H1N1/pdm2009 virus, a novel swine-derived, triple reassortant virus, was rapidly transmitted between humans and spread to 168 countries, resulting in over 123,000 human deaths globally from March to December 2009 2, 3. Since then, it has replaced the previous seasonal H1N1 and circulated as a seasonal virus along with the H3N2 virus, posing substantial risks to human populations 4, creating an opportunity for coinfection and therefore recombination or reassortment between them.
Source: Journal of Infection - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research
In conclusion, the reported results highlight the importance of AIV attachment to trachea in many avian species. Finally, the importance of chickens and mallards in AIVs dynamics was illustrated by the abundant AIV attachment observed. Introduction Influenza A viruses (IAVs) are pathogens of global concern in both human and veterinary medicine (Webster et al., 1992; Stöhr, 2002; Olsen et al., 2006; Wiethoelter et al., 2015). Wild birds are well-described hosts of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) and longitudinal surveillance studies have demonstrated a plethora of low pathogenic AIVs (LPAIVs) circulating in wild...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Jennifer M. Rudd1, Sivasami Pulavendran1, Harshini K. Ashar1, Jerry W. Ritchey1, Timothy A. Snider1, Jerry R. Malayer1, Montelongo Marie1, Vincent T. K. Chow2 and Teluguakula Narasaraju1* 1Center for Veterinary Health Sciences, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, United States2Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, National University Health System, Singapore, Singapore Exaggerated host innate immune responses have been implicated in severe influenza pneumonia. We have previously demonstrated that excessive neutrophils recruited during in...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Abstract We performed swine influenza virus (SIV) surveillance in Midwest USA and isolated 100 SIVs including endemic and reassortant H1 and H3 viruses with 2009 pandemic H1N1 genes. To determine virus evolution when different genotypes and subtypes of influenza A viruses circulating in the same swine herd, a virus survival experiment was conducted in pigs mimicking field situations. Five different SIVs were used to infect five pigs individually, then two groups of sentinel pigs were introduced to investigate virus transmission. Results showed that each virus replicated efficiently in lungs of each infected pig, b...
Source: Virology - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Virology Source Type: research
This study describes the development and validation of a TaqMan based - one-step multiplex RT-qPCR to discriminate the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes of the three major IAV subtypes circulating in pigs in Brazil. The RT-qPCR assays presented 100% (95.7-100, CI 95%) of diagnostic sensitivity in the analysis of 85 IAVs, previously characterized by sequencing. The limits of detection ranged from 5.09 × 101 to 5.09 × 103 viral RNA copies/μL. For the analytical specificity, 73 pig samples collected during 2017 and 2018 were analyzed, resulting in the identification of the subtyp...
Source: Journal of Virological Methods - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: J Virol Methods Source Type: research
In this study, we used a swine pH1N1 challenge virus to investigate the efficacy of whole inactivated virus vaccines homologous or heterologous to the challenge virus as well as a commercial vaccine. We found that vaccine-mediated protection was most effective when vaccine antigen and challenge virus were homologous and correlated with the specific production of neutralising antibodies and a cellular response to the challenge virus. We conclude that a conventional whole inactivated SwIV vaccine must be antigenically matched to the challenge strain to be an effective control measure. PMID: 30914224 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 12 March 2019Source: Veterinary MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Svenja Mamerow, Robert Scheffter, Susanne Röhrs, Olga Stech, Ulrike Blohm, Theresa Schwaiger, Charlotte Schröder, Reiner Ulrich, Jan Schinköthe, Martin Beer, Thomas C. Mettenleiter, Jürgen StechAbstractInfluenza A viruses (IAV) have caused seasonal epidemics and severe pandemics in humans. Novel pandemic strains as in 2009 may emerge from pigs, serving as perpetual virus reservoir. However, reliably effective vaccination has remained a key issue for humans and swine. Here, we generated a novel double-attenuated inf...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewZoonotic influenza viruses are those that cross the animal-human barrier and can cause disease in humans, manifesting from minor respiratory illnesses to multiorgan dysfunction. They have also been implicated in the causation of deadly pandemics in recent history. The increasing incidence of infections caused by these viruses worldwide has necessitated focused attention to improve both diagnostic as well as treatment modalities. In this first part of a two-part review, we describe the structure of zoonotic influenza viruses, the relationship between mutation and pandemic capacity, pathogenesis of i...
Source: Current Infectious Disease Reports - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
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