Role of filtration in managing the risk from Cryptosporidium in commercial swimming pools - a review.

Role of filtration in managing the risk from Cryptosporidium in commercial swimming pools - a review. J Water Health. 2019 Jun;17(3):357-370 Authors: Wood M, Simmonds L, MacAdam J, Hassard F, Jarvis P, Chalmers RM Abstract Most commercial swimming pools use pressurised filters, typically containing sand media, to remove suspended solids as part of the water treatment process designed to keep water attractive, clean and safe. The accidental release of faecal material by bathers presents a poorly quantified risk to the safety of swimmers using the pool. The water treatment process usually includes a combination of maintaining a residual concentration of an appropriate biocide in the pool together with filtration to physically remove particles, including microbial pathogens, from the water. However, there is uncertainty about the effectiveness of treatment processes in removing all pathogens, and there has been growing concern about the number of reported outbreaks of the gastrointestinal disease cryptosporidiosis, caused by the chlorine-resistant protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium. A number of interacting issues influence the effectiveness of filtration for the removal of Cryptosporidium oocysts from swimming pools. This review explains the mechanisms by which filters remove particles of different sizes (including oocyst-sized particles, typically 4-6 μm), factors that affect the efficiency of particle removal (such as filtration velocity), current recom...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

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CONCLUSIONS: As drinking water in Israel is treated to maximal international standards, the rationale for further inclusion of Cryptosporidium among mandatory notifiable diseases should be reconsidered. Future surveillance efforts should focus on timely detection of outbreaks using molecular high-throughput testing. PMID: 31542902 [PubMed - in process]
Source: The Israel Medical Association Journal - Category: General Medicine Tags: Isr Med Assoc J Source Type: research
A sunburn may not be the only health consequence of your summer beach trips and pool days. A study published last year estimated that recreational water activities are related to 90 million illnesses each year in the U.S., with swimming as one of the primary catalysts of water-borne respiratory, ear and skin infections. Less frequently, according to federal data, pathogens found in pools, lakes, rivers and oceans can lead to more serious sickness, including gastrointestinal illnesses and—in very rare cases—exposure to flesh-eating bacteria. This month, for example, a Florida woman died from a flesh-eating bacte...
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Infectious Disease Source Type: news
(Michigan Medicine - University of Michigan) Cryptosporidiosis, a diarrheal disease, is caused by the microscopic parasite cryptosporidium and it's a tough bug to killl. Two University of Michigan experts weigh in on how to prevent it's spreading.
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news
Shitcoins. Literally.
Source: FT.com - Drugs and Healthcare - Category: Pharmaceuticals Source Type: news
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention issued a warning about a rise in the number of outbreaks caused by the fecal parasite Cryptosporidium, or “Crypto.”
Source: Washington Post: To Your Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Source Type: news
A recent announcement from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) may put a damper on summer fun. A fecal parasite often spread by swimming is causing an increasing number of illness outbreaks, the agency says. The number of disease outbreaks involving the parasite Cryptosporidium, also known as Crypto, increased by about 13% each year from 2009 to 2017, according to a new report from the CDC. People can become ill with cryptosporidiosis after exposure to contaminated human or animal fecal matter, developing symptoms including nausea, cramps and diarrhea that can last weeks and lead to serious malnutriti...
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized public health Source Type: news
Abstract Cryptosporidium is a parasite that causes cryptosporidiosis, a profuse, watery diarrhea that can last up to 3 weeks in immunocompetent patients and can lead to life-threatening malnutrition and wasting in immunocompromised patients.* Fecal-oral transmission can occur by ingestion of contaminated recreational water, drinking water, or food, or through contact with infected persons or animals. For the period 2009-2017, public health officials from 40 states and Puerto Rico voluntarily reported 444 cryptosporidiosis outbreaks resulting in 7,465 cases. Exposure to treated recreational water (e.g., in pools an...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - Category: Epidemiology Authors: Tags: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Source Type: research
Abstract Cryptosporidium spp. is a pathogenic protozoan present in the gastrointestinal tract of several hosts. This protozoan was originally classified as within the Coccidia Class and has recently been reclassified to gregarine based on studies that observed the evolutionary phases from the process of excision and sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene. Molecular biology techniques have become diagnostic tools and have also been used to understand the epidemiology of Cryptosporidium spp., since several species of this genus are very similar morphologically and morphometrically. Molecular techniques have been used in th...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research
A Minnesota campground seems to be behind an apparent outbreak of water-borne parasitic illness, public health officials said. Minnesota Department of Health (MDH) officials confirmed last week that three people tested positive for cryptosporidiosis after visiting Shades of Sherwood Campground in Zumbrota. (One person also tested positive for E. coli.) In an update posted Friday, MDH officials said they have identified 72 people with symptoms consistent with cryptosporidiosis or E. coli, though most of these illnesses have not been laboratory-confirmed. Cryptosporidiosis is typically contracted after ingesting water that h...
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Minnesota onetime Source Type: news
You may want to think twice before taking a dip on your next vacation, according to the results of a new report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Between 2000 and 2014, the CDC recorded 493 disease outbreaks related to treated recreational water, resulting in more than 27,000 illnesses and eight deaths. And in almost a third of those outbreaks, the infections could be traced back to hotel pools, hot tubs and spas, the CDC says. In hotels, pools were a major culprit, but 65 cases stemmed from hot tubs or spas. Of the outbreaks with a confirmed cause, the vast majority — 94% — were due t...
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized healthytime onetime public health Source Type: news
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