Immunogenicity of full and fractional dose of inactivated poliovirus vaccine for use in routine immunisation and outbreak response: an open-label, randomised controlled trial

Publication date: Available online 16 May 2019Source: The LancetAuthor(s): Cynthia J Snider, Khalequ Zaman, Concepcion F Estivariz, Mohammad Yunus, William C Weldon, Kathleen A Wannemuehler, M Steven Oberste, Mark A Pallansch, Steven GF Wassilak, Tajul Islam A Bari, Abhijeet AnandSummaryBackgroundIntradermal administration of fractional inactivated poliovirus vaccine (fIPV) is a dose-sparing alternative to the intramuscular full dose. We aimed to compare the immunogenicity of two fIPV doses versus one IPV dose for routine immunisation, and also assessed the immunogenicity of an fIPV booster dose for an outbreak response.MethodsWe did an open-label, randomised, controlled, inequality, non-inferiority trial in two clinics in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Healthy infants were randomly assigned at 6 weeks to one of four groups: group A received IPV at age 14 weeks and IPV booster at age 22 weeks; group B received IPV at age 14 weeks and fIPV booster at age 22 weeks; group C received IPV at age 6 weeks and fIPV booster at age 22 weeks; and group D received fIPV at 6 weeks and 14 weeks and fIPV booster at age 22 weeks. IPV was administered by needle-syringe as an intramuscular full dose (0·5 mL), and fIPV was administered intradermally (0·1 mL of the IPV formulation was administered using the 0·1 mL HelmJect auto-disable syringe with a Helms intradermal adapter). Both IPV and fIPV were administered on the outer, upper right thigh of infants. The primary outcome was vaccin...
Source: The Lancet - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

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Abstract Immunization has made an enormous contribution to global health. Global vaccination coverage has dramatically improved and mortality rates among children due to vaccine-preventable diseases have been significantly reduced since the creation of the Expanded Programme of Immunization in 1974, the formation of Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, in 2000, and the development of the Global Vaccine Action Plan in 2012. However, challenges remain and persisting inequities in vaccine uptake contribute to the continued occurrence and outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases. Inequalities in immunization coverage by geogr...
Source: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tags: Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz Source Type: research
New cases of highly infectious disease that should be ‘consigned to the history books’ reported in Nigeria, the DRC, CAR and AngolaNew cases of polio linked to the oral vaccine have been reported in four African countries and more children are now being paralysed by vaccine-derived viruses than those infected by viruses in the wild, according to global health numbers.The World Health Organization (WHO) and partners identified nine new cases caused by the vaccine in Nigeria, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Central African Republic and Angola last week. Along with seven other African countries with outbreak...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Global development Polio Infectious diseases Health Medical research Children Africa Nigeria Democratic Republic of the Congo Central African Republic Angola Source Type: news
In rare instances, the live virus in oral polio vaccines can mutate and become infectious, causing new outbreaks.
Source: The Scientist - Category: Science Tags: News & Opinion Source Type: news
Polio cases around have declined globally by more than 99 percent since 1988, but the type 1 poliovirus remains endemic in Pakistan and Afghanistan, where it has made a comeback this year and infected 102 people. Credit: Ashfaq Yusufzai/IPS By James ReinlUNITED NATIONS, Nov 20 2019 (IPS) Efforts to wipe polio off the face of the planet took a step forward this week, with a multibillion-dollar fundraiser in the Middle East helping eradication schemes tackle a virus that disproportionately kills and cripples children in poor countries. Donor governments and philanthropists pledged $2.6 billion on Tuesday in Abu Dhabi to...
Source: IPS Inter Press Service - Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tags: Aid Asia-Pacific Development & Aid Featured Global Headlines Health IPS UN: Inside the Glasshouse Poverty & SDGs Regional Categories TerraViva United Nations polio eradication World Health Organization (WHO) Source Type: news
Abstract One objective of the 2013-2018 Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) Strategic Plan was the transition of GPEI polio essential functions to other public health programs [1]. For many developing countries, in addition to polio essential functions, GPEI funding has been supporting integrated communicable disease surveillance and routine immunization programs. As GPEI progresses toward polio eradication, GPEI funding for some polio-free countries is being scaled back. The Somalia Polio Eradication Program, led by international organizations in collaboration with local authorities, is a critical source o...
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
This report presents data on cVDPV outbreaks detected during January 2018-June 2019 (as of September 30, 2019). Compared with January 2017-June 2018 (3), the number of reported cVDPV outbreaks more than tripled, from nine to 29; 25 (86%) of the outbreaks were caused by cVDPV2. The increase in the number of outbreaks in 2019 resulted from VDPV2 both inside and outside of mOPV2 response areas. GPEI is planning future use of a novel type 2 OPV, stabilized to decrease the likelihood of reversion to neurovirulence. However, all countries must maintain high population immunity to decrease the risk for cVDPV emergence. Cessation ...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - Category: Epidemiology Authors: Tags: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Source Type: research
Since the launch of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative in 1988 and broad use of live, attenuated oral poliovirus vaccine, the number of wild poliovirus cases has declined>99.99%.
Source: CDC Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report - Category: American Health Tags: Diabetes Eye and Vision Health MMWR Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report Outbreaks Polio (poliomyelitis) Polio Vaccination Population health Smoking Tobacco Use Vaccines Cigarette Smoking Source Type: news
On 27 September 2019 , a circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 1 (cVDPV1) has been confirmed in environmental samples in Philippines. The virus has been isolated from ten environmental samples, all genetically related, which were collected from one sewage collection site and its tributary pumping stations in Manila, between 1 July and 23 September 2019. This sewage collection site in the city of Manila has a catchment area of over 600,000 people. Vaccine-derived polioviruses are rarely occurring forms of the poliovirus that have genetically changed from the attenuated (weakened) virus contained in oral polio vaccine....
Source: WHO Disease Outbreaks - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: news Source Type: news
(Natural News) For the first time in almost two decades, the Philippines is experiencing a major polio outbreak, and authorities admit that polio vaccines are to blame. But Big Tech continues to de-platform or otherwise silence users who try to share this pertinent information online, which is endangering public health all around the globe. Natural...
Source: NaturalNews.com - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
In conclusion, European countries now have more comprehensive national vaccination programs for HCP, however there are still gaps. Given the recent large outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases in Europe and the occupational risk for HCP, vaccination policies need to be expanded and strengthened in several European countries. Overall, vaccination policies for HCP in Europe should be periodically re-evaluated in order to provide optimal protection against vaccine-preventable diseases and infection control within healthcare facilities for HCP and patients. PMID: 31623916 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
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