Immunogenicity of full and fractional dose of inactivated poliovirus vaccine for use in routine immunisation and outbreak response: an open-label, randomised controlled trial

Publication date: Available online 16 May 2019Source: The LancetAuthor(s): Cynthia J Snider, Khalequ Zaman, Concepcion F Estivariz, Mohammad Yunus, William C Weldon, Kathleen A Wannemuehler, M Steven Oberste, Mark A Pallansch, Steven GF Wassilak, Tajul Islam A Bari, Abhijeet AnandSummaryBackgroundIntradermal administration of fractional inactivated poliovirus vaccine (fIPV) is a dose-sparing alternative to the intramuscular full dose. We aimed to compare the immunogenicity of two fIPV doses versus one IPV dose for routine immunisation, and also assessed the immunogenicity of an fIPV booster dose for an outbreak response.MethodsWe did an open-label, randomised, controlled, inequality, non-inferiority trial in two clinics in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Healthy infants were randomly assigned at 6 weeks to one of four groups: group A received IPV at age 14 weeks and IPV booster at age 22 weeks; group B received IPV at age 14 weeks and fIPV booster at age 22 weeks; group C received IPV at age 6 weeks and fIPV booster at age 22 weeks; and group D received fIPV at 6 weeks and 14 weeks and fIPV booster at age 22 weeks. IPV was administered by needle-syringe as an intramuscular full dose (0·5 mL), and fIPV was administered intradermally (0·1 mL of the IPV formulation was administered using the 0·1 mL HelmJect auto-disable syringe with a Helms intradermal adapter). Both IPV and fIPV were administered on the outer, upper right thigh of infants. The primary outcome was vaccin...
Source: The Lancet - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

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The COVID-19 pandemic has had a worldwide effect for what seems like an eternity. After shelter-in-place orders became more prevalent in March,  most people probably didn’t think they’d still be wearing masks in October. So the question remains, when will the pandemic end?  It turns out there are quite a few factors that contribute to the rise and fall of a pandemic, some within our control, some that are not. An outbreak becomes a pandemic when it meets two criteria, first, it spreads rapidly and widely, and second, it must qualify as a severe disease. If either of these factors change, it is no long...
Source: Conversations with Dr Greene - Category: Child Development Authors: Tags: Dr. Greene's Blog Coronavirus COVID COVID-19 COVID-19 Feature Source Type: blogs
Conclusions: As Karbala response to polio outbreak met the target global indicators and standards of polio surveillance. The circulation of the virus in this locality was interrupted and further transmission of the disease is unlikely.
Source: International Journal of Preventive Medicine - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research
Background: Whilst wild polio outbreaks are becoming a distant memory, vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) outbreaks are increasing in incidence. For many countries currently experiencing VDPV outbreaks (Philippines, Ghana, Indonesia, etc.) it has been many years since polio has been observed and the optimal location of vaccination campaigns are uncertain.
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: 0567 Source Type: research
[PR Newswire] Amman, Jordan -- "The recent vaccine-derived polio outbreaks confirmed in Yemen and Sudan are consequences of increasingly low levels of immunity among children. Each outbreak has paralysed children in areas that have been extremely difficult if not impossible to reach with routine or supplementary polio vaccination for extended periods of time.
Source: AllAfrica News: Polio - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news
(Natural News) Just a week after the World Health Organization announced that their lengthy polio vaccination campaign in Africa was a success, it emerged that their oral vaccine has actually spurred yet another new outbreak of the disease there. The new outbreak is being seen in Sudan, where two children were paralyzed shortly after being...
Source: NaturalNews.com - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
We are tantalisingly close to eradicating the disease. Things may slip backwards because of science, thugs and exponents of ignorancePolio arrives, if it announces itself at all, as a high temperature. Or a sore throat. Maybe a headache, or an upset stomach. It can go within a week or so, and be mistaken for flu. It is transmitted by poor hygiene, largely affects children under five, and many don ’t realise they’ve had it. In 5-10% of cases, however, the virus affects the nerves, paralysing the legs in particular; sometimes it reaches the lungs. For most, this is temporary. For others –30 years ago, this ...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Polio Vaccines and immunisation Children Pakistan Afghanistan Hepatitis B Taliban Coronavirus outbreak Infectious diseases Health Medical research Science South and Central Asia Society Source Type: news
PMID: 32853189 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - Category: Epidemiology Authors: Tags: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Source Type: research
This report describes how disruptions in routine immunizations because of the COVID-19 pandemic have elevated the risk for increases in vaccine-preventable diseases such as polio in Africa and the Philippines.
Source: CDC Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report - Category: American Health Tags: MMWR Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report Polio (poliomyelitis) Source Type: news
Nobody will ever know the identity of the thousands of African children who were not killed or paralyzed by polio this year. They would have been hard to keep track of no matter what because in ordinary times, they would have followed thousands last year and thousands the year before and on back in a generations-long trail of suffering and death. Instead, no African children were claimed by polio this year or last year or the year before. It was in 2016 that the last case of wild, circulating polio was reported in Nigeria—the final country on the 54-nation African continent where the disease was endemic. And with a r...
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news
ConclusionsCOVID-19 has become an everyday topic of discussion throughout the world, indicating the increasing number of COVID-19 cases, deaths and recoveries. The lessons learned from past pandemics such as social distancing, wearing masks, avoiding public gatherings and adherence to guidelines, along with personal hygiene, are the key measures that must be taken in order to live with COVID-19. Precautions for the elderly and pregnant women advised by medical authorities are to be strictly adhered to. These will help in reducing COVID-19 cases and in turn will reduce the pressure on hospitals to serve those in need. India...
Source: Journal of Public Health - Category: Health Management Source Type: research
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