Investigation of suspected Newcastle disease (ND) outbreaks in Egypt uncovers a high virus velogenic ND virus burden in small-scale holdings and the presence of multiple pathogens.

In this study we aimed to verify clinical ND suspicions in poultry holdings in Egypt suffering from respiratory distress and elevated mortality, comparing two groups of ND-vaccinated poultry holdings in three governorates. Besides testing for Newcastle disease virus (NDV), samples were screened for infectious bronchits virus (IBV) and avian influenza virus (AIV) by RT-qPCR as well as by non-directed cell-culture approach on LMH-cells. Virulent NDV was confirmed only in group A (n = 16) comprising small-scale holdings. Phylogenetic analysis of the fusion protein gene of 11 NDV-positive samples obtained from this group assigned all viruses to genotype 2.VIIb and point to four different virus populations that were circulating at the same time in one governorate, indicating independent epidemiological events. In group B, comprising large commercial broiler farms (n = 10), virulent NDV was not present, although, in six farms NDV vaccine type virus (genotype 2.II) was detected. Besides, in both groups, co-infections by IBV (n = 8), AIV H9 (n = 3) and/or avian reovirus (ARV) (n = 5) and avian astrovirus (AastVs) (n = 1) could be identified. Taken together, the study confirmed clinical ND suspicion in small scale holdings, pointing to inefficient vaccination practice in this group A. However, it also highlighted that even in an endemic situation like ND in Egypt, in cases of suspected ND vaccine failu...
Source: Avian Pathology - Category: Pathology Authors: Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

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Source: Infection and Drug Resistance - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Infection and Drug Resistance Source Type: research
The objective of this study was to evaluate post-vaccine antibody titers and circulating cellular memory development in heifers fed OG and administered a commercially available modified-live bovine respiratory disease (BRD) vaccine. Twenty-four Holstein heifers were assigned to one of two diets for 170 days: Control TMR (CON; n = 11), or TMR plus OG (TRT; 9 g/100 kg BW/day; n = 13). Samples for hematology, serology, and cellular assays were collected on D-110, 0, 21, 42, and 60 of the trial. Heifers were administered two priming doses of a modified-live BRD vaccine, with a third dose given on D0. There were n...
Source: Research in Veterinary Science - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
The brightest star returns this week, twinkling and sparkling unmistakably in the southern skyThere ’s a treat in store all week for early risers.Sirius, the brightest star in the night sky, will be glittering in the southern sky in the pre-dawn hours. Having been absent from view for several months, the star is now rising shortly after midnight. Located just 8.6 light years away, Sirius is about twice the mass of the sun and 25 times more luminous. It makes for an unmistakable sight, twinkling and sparkling in the night sky. The chart shows the view looking due south at 06:00 GMT on 22 October. Sirius is part of the...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - Category: Science Tags: Science Astronomy Space Source Type: news
[The Conversation Africa] The theme for World Health Day in 1995 was "Target 2000 -- A World Without Polio". I delivered a lecture titled "Polio Eradication Race: Will Nigeria Finish Last?" to mark the occasion. Finishing last seemed likely because in the 1990s Nigeria's routine immunisation rates were in the 30%-40% range for all vaccine preventable diseases. Countries in Southern and East Africa that had eradicated polio had coverage in the 80%-90% range.
Source: AllAfrica News: Polio - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news
Publication date: Available online 19 October 2019Source: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Toxicology &PharmacologyAuthor(s): Shouta M.M. Nakayama, Ayuko Morita, Yoshinori Ikenaka, Yusuke K. Kawai, Kensuke P. Watanabe, Chihiro Ishii, Hazuki Mizukawa, Yared B. Yohannes, Keisuke Saito, Yukiko Watanabe, Masaki Ito, Natsuo Ohsawa, Mayumi IshizukaAbstractWorldwide use of anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs) for rodents control has frequently led to secondary poisoning of non-target animals, especially raptors. In order to suggest some factors that may help considering the mechanism of the incidents, this study fo...
Source: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Toxicology and Pharmacology - Category: Toxicology Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Abstract For this two-part Clinical &Experimental Immunology Review Series, Guest Editor E. Diane Williamson invited experts in their fields to contribute articles on the status of vaccine research and development for emerging pathogens. Part One addressed our progress in developing vaccines for emerging and re-emerging viruses and considered current work on effective vaccines for bacterial pathogens. In this edition of the journal, we are pleased to present Part Two, in which our authors emphasise the importance of vaccine formulation and of the use of effective delivery vehicles, as well as the prospects for...
Source: Clinical and Developmental Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Clin Exp Immunol Source Type: research
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Source: GIDEON blog - Category: Databases & Libraries Authors: Tags: What's New Source Type: blogs
Authors: Landman WJM, Gantois N, van Eck JHH, van der Heijden HMJF, Viscogliosi E Abstract Granuloma disease in a flock of free range productive layers in the Netherlands in 2017 is described. The disease resembled granuloma outbreaks in layers caused by Tetratrichomonas gallinarum in 2013 and occurred in the same area in which the rearing farm considered as the source of the 2013 outbreaks was located. Between 55 and 84 weeks of age mortality was 20.3% (breeder's norm 3.9%). All dead hens examined (n = 20) showed granulomas especially in liver and ceca. Nine hens with or without liver and/or ceca gra...
Source: Veterinary Quarterly - Category: Veterinary Research Tags: Vet Q Source Type: research
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