Angioneurins – Key regulators of blood–brain barrier integrity during hypoxic and ischemic brain injury

Publication date: Available online 7 April 2019Source: Progress in NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Reiner Kunze, Hugo H. MartiAbstractThe loss of blood–brain barrier (BBB) integrity leading to vasogenic edema and brain swelling is a common feature of hypoxic/ischemic brain diseases such as stroke, but is also central to the etiology of other CNS disorders. In the past decades, numerous proteins, belonging to the family of angioneurins, have gained increasing attention as potential therapeutic targets for ischemic stroke, but also other CNS diseases attributed to BBB dysfunction. Angioneurins encompass mediators that affect both neuronal and vascular function. Recently, increasing evidence has been accumulated that certain angioneurins critically determine disease progression and outcome in stroke among others through multifaceted effects on the compromised BBB. Here, we will give a concise overview about the family of angioneurins. We further describe the most important cellular and molecular components that contribute to structural integrity and low permeability of the BBB under steady-state conditions. We then discuss BBB alterations in ischemic stroke, and highlight underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms. For the most prominent angioneurin family members including vascular endothelial growth factors, angiopoietins, platelet-derived growth factors and erythropoietin, we will summarize current scientific literature from experimental studies in animal models, and if availa...
Source: Progress in Neurobiology - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

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This study aimed to explore the effect of winter temperatures on the risk factors, etiology, coagulation, and degree of neurological impairment in patients with ischemic stroke using temperature and rainfall data from the Guangzhou Meteorological Bureau during the winter months of December, January, and February. MATERIAL AND METHODS We divided 112 patients with ischemic stroke into low-temperature and non-low-temperature groups. The low-temperature group experienced an average daily winter temperature of 13°C on admission. Neurological deficits were scored and monitored using the National Institutes of Health Stroke S...
Source: Medical Science Monitor - Category: Research Tags: Med Sci Monit Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 24 May 2019Source: The LancetAuthor(s): Natan M Bornstein, Jeffrey L Saver, Hans Christoph Diener, Philip B Gorelick, Ashfaq Shuaib, Yoram Solberg, Lisa Thackeray, Milan Savic, Tamar Janelidze, Natia Zarqua, David Yarnitsky, Carlos A Molina, Ashfaq Shuaib, Michael Hill, Daniel Vaclavik, David Skoloudik, Jan Fiksa, Grethe Andersen, Pekka Jakala, Turgut TatlisumakSummaryBackgroundSphenopalatine ganglion stimulation increased cerebral collateral blood flow, stabilised the blood–brain barrier, and reduced infarct size, in preclinical models of acute ischaemic stroke, and showed potentia...
Source: The Lancet - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake.
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 23 May 2019Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Tianyu Zhang, Chunfu Wu, Xiaowei Yang, Yueyang Liu, Hanlin Yang, Linlin Yuan, Yinglu Liu, Shibo Sun, Jingyu YangAbstractCalcium overload has been reported to trigger neuronal death following stroke. Pseudoginsenoside-F11 (PF11), an ocotillol-type ginsenoside with various neuroprotective activities, has displayed therapeutic efficacy against permanent ischemic stroke. The present study examined the protective potential of PF11 in rats subjected to 2-h transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) and in cultured primary cortical neuron (PCN) e...
Source: Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Research led by a UCLA scientist found that a new nerve stimulation therapy to increase blood flow could help patients with the most common type of stroke up to 24 hours after onset.A study of 1,000 patients found evidence that the technique, called active nerve cell cluster stimulation, reduced the patients ’ degree of disability three months after they suffered an acute cortical ischemic stroke, which affects the surface of the brain.Dr. Jeffrey Saver, director of theUCLA Comprehensive Stroke Center, was the co-principal investigator of the study, which was conducted at 73 medical centers in 18 countries.“We ...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news
This study is registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42019128036.FindingsWe identified three trials that met eligibility criteria: EXTEND, ECASS4-EXTEND, and EPITHET. Of the 414 patients included in the three trials, 213 (51%) were assigned to receive alteplase and 201 (49%) were assigned to receive placebo. Overall, 211 patients in the alteplase group and 199 patients in the placebo group had mRS assessment data at 3 months and thus were included in the analysis of the primary outcome. 76 (36%) of 211 patients in the alteplase group and 58 (29%) of 199 patients in the placebo group had achieved excellent functional outcome a...
Source: The Lancet - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
The actual effects of oxygen therapy on patients who have suffered a stroke are still unknown, and its recommendation as a routine measure in emergency services remains controversial. The aim of this study is ...
Source: Annals of Intensive Care - Category: Intensive Care Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
Robust and reliable stroke lesion segmentation is a crucial step towards employing lesion volume as an independent endpoint for randomized trials. The aim of this work was to develop and evaluate a novel method to segment sub-acute ischemic stroke lesions from fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) datasets. After preprocessing of the datasets, a Bayesian technique based on Gabor textures extracted from the FLAIR signal intensities is utilized to generate a first estimate of the lesion segmentation. Using this initial segmentation, a customized voxel-level Markov random field model ...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
We previously reported that the cell cycle–related cyclin-dependent kinase 4–retinoblastoma (RB) transcriptional corepressor pathway is essential for stroke-induced cell death both in vitro and in vivo. However, how this signaling pathway induces cell death is unclear. Previously, we found that the cyclin-dependent kinase 4 pathway activates the pro-apoptotic transcriptional co-regulator Cited2 in vitro after DNA damage. In the present study, we report that Cited2 protein expression is also dramatically increased following stroke/ischemic insult. Critically, utilizing conditional knockout mice, we show that Cit...
Source: Journal of Biological Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Molecular Bases of Disease Source Type: research
Overall, 75.2% of deaths from stroke occur in low- and middle-income countries. Mexico is a middle-income country with little information about the prognosis of early and late postischemic and hemorrhagic stroke.
Source: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases - Category: Neurology Authors: Source Type: research
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