UK Scientists Produce Comprehensive Summary of Genes Associated with Cancer in Humans Making Precision Medicine ‘More Precise’

Expanded ‘Cancer Gene Census’ is expected to accelerate development of new therapeutics and biomarker-based personalized medicine diagnostic tests for disease; could be useful for anatomic pathologists Oncology is one of the fastest-developing fields in precision medicine and use of DNA-based diagnostics. Surgical pathologists are helping many cancer patients benefit from the use of a companion […]
Source: Dark Daily - Category: Laboratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Laboratory Instruments & Laboratory Equipment Laboratory Management and Operations Laboratory News Laboratory Operations Laboratory Pathology Laboratory Testing Management & Operations anatomic pathology Cambridge Network Cancer Gene Cen Source Type: news

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In this study, we found that TLR1/TLR2 expression predicted favorable prognosis of lung cancer patients. In the related mice tumor model, TLR1/TLR2 activation by synthetic bacterial lipoprotein (BLP), a TLR1/2 agonist, greatly inhibited tumor growth and selectively decreased monocytic MDSCs (M-MDSCs). Furthermore, BLP treatment redirected M-MDSC differentiation towards M1 macrophage through JNK pathway, and thus blocked the suppressive activity of M-MDSCs in a TLR2-dependent manner. Therefore, our data demonstrated that TLR2 could be a promising biomarker and a potential immunotherapeutic target for lung cancer.
Source: Molecular Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 15 June 2019Source: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and MedicineAuthor(s): Yang Xiong, Ying Wang, Karthik TiruthaniAbstractColorectal cancer (CRC) is predicted to be the 2nd leading cause of cancer-related death in United States in 2019. Immunotherapies such as checkpoint inhibitors have proven efficacy in patients with high level of microsatellite instability and refractory to routine chemotherapy. Despite this, immunotherapy-based treatment is seriously limited by cancer immunogenicity which are evolved to evade immune surveillance in many circumstances. Efforts are made by resear...
Source: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine - Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 15 June 2019Source: Nano TodayAuthor(s): Weijing Yang, Zijian Zhou, Joseph Lau, Shuo Hu, Xiaoyuan ChenAbstractImmunotherapy (e.g., checkpoint blockade, adoptive T cell therapy, cancer vaccine) has emerged as one of the most important treatment modalities for cancer in the past two decades. While these approaches are promising, the response rates observed in clinical trials are less than 30% due to tumor heterogeneity and complexity of the tumor microenvironment. Smart nanosystems have the potential to address some of the limitations associated with immunotherapy. Herein, we review applica...
Source: Nano Today - Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research
Publication date: August 2019Source: Clinica Chimica Acta, Volume 495Author(s): Yujia He, Abidali Mohamedali, Canhua Huang, Mark S. Baker, Edouard C. NiceAbstractOncoproteomics is the systematic study of cancer samples using omics technologies to detect changes implicated in tumorigenesis. Recent progress in oncoproteomics is already opening new avenues for the identification of novel biomarkers for early clinical stage cancer detection, targeted molecular therapies, disease monitoring, and drug development. Such information will lead to new understandings of cancer biology and impact dramatically on the future care of can...
Source: Clinica Chimica Acta - Category: Laboratory Medicine Source Type: research
Abstract Base excision DNA repair (BER) is a vitally important pathway that protects the cell genome from many kinds of DNA damage, including oxidation, deamination, and hydrolysis. It involves several tightly coordinated steps, starting from damaged base excision and followed by nicking one DNA strand, incorporating an undamaged nucleotide, and DNA ligation. Deficiencies in BER are often embryonic lethal or cause morbid diseases such as cancer, neurodegeneration, or severe immune pathologies. Starting from the early 1980s, when the first mammalian cell lines lacking BER were produced by spontaneous mutagenesis, s...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research
This study demonstrates that NSCLC cells resistant to gefitinib (GR cells) displayed a significantly higher microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1) expression and activity than parental cells. Overexpression of mPGES-1/prostaglandin E-2 (PGE-2) signaling in GR cells was associated with acquisition of mesenchymal and stem-like cell properties, nuclear EGFR translocation and tolerance to cisplatin. mPGES-1 inhibition reduced mesenchymal and stem-like properties, and nuclear EGFR translocation in GR cells. Consistently, inhibition of mPGES-1 activity enhanced sensitivity to cisplatin and responsiveness to gefitinib in...
Source: Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators - Category: Lipidology Source Type: research
Conclusion: This study showed that periodontal diseases were associated with increased risk of several cancers. Besides other wellknown benefits for health, the provision of oral/dental health should be considered and employed as a cancer prevention measure. PMID: 31195790 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences - Category: General Medicine Tags: Turk J Med Sci Source Type: research
Authors: Yıldız Çeltek N, Süren M, Demir O, Okan İ Abstract Background/aim: Validated measures in palliative cancer patients are very important in the evaluation and management of the disease. The Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS) has been used for many years to assess the performance status of cancer patients. The aim of this study is to determine the validity and reliability of the KPS in cancer patients receiving palliative care in Turkey. Materials and methods: Eighty patients with a cancer diagnosis who were admitted to Gaziosmanpaşa University Medical Faculty Hospital Palliative Care Unit ...
Source: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences - Category: General Medicine Tags: Turk J Med Sci Source Type: research
This study aimed to clarify whether CT-histogram analysis of tumors can be used to classify patients with clinical stage 0-IA non-small cell lung cancer (c0-IA NSCLC) according to pathological lymph node (pN) status.MethodsPredictive factors associated with pN metastasis (pNM) were identified from the derivation dataset including 629 patients with c0-IA NSCLC who underwent complete resection with lymph node dissection (surgeries between 2008 and 2013). The validation dataset including 238 patients (surgeries between 2014 and 2015) were subsequently re-evaluated. Clinico-surgical factors, including CT-histogram parameters o...
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research
Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the manifestation and significance of changes in both telomere length and the expression of human telomere protective protein (hPOT1) in the peripheral blood leukocytes of patients with atherosclerosis (AS). One hundred subjects-excluding those with acute or chronic inflammation, cancer, and autoimmune diseases-were enrolled in this study and divided into two groups: the atherosclerosis group (AS group) and control group. We extracted peripheral blood leukocyte DNA along with its peripheral proteins. After purity testing, a digoxigeninlabeled telomere probe was use...
Source: Atherosclerosis - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: J Nanosci Nanotechnol Source Type: research
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