National, regional, and state-level all-cause and cause-specific under-5 mortality in India in 2000–15: a systematic analysis with implications for the Sustainable Development Goals

Publication date: June 2019Source: The Lancet Global Health, Volume 7, Issue 6Author(s): Li Liu, Yue Chu, Shefali Oza, Dan Hogan, Jamie Perin, Diego G Bassani, Usha Ram, Shaza A Fadel, Arvind Pandey, Neeraj Dhingra, Damodar Sahu, Pradeep Kumar, Richard Cibulskis, Brian Wahl, Anita Shet, Colin Mathers, Joy Lawn, Prabhat Jha, Rakesh Kumar, Robert E BlackSummaryBackgroundIndia had the largest number of under-5 deaths of all countries in 2015, with substantial subnational disparities. We estimated national and subnational all-cause and cause-specific mortality among children younger than 5 years annually in 2000–15 in India to understand progress made and to consider implications for achieving the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) child survival targets.MethodsWe used a multicause model to estimate cause-specific mortality proportions in neonates and children aged 1–59 months at the state level, with causes of death grouped into pneumonia, diarrhoea, meningitis, injury, measles, congenital abnormalities, preterm birth complications, intrapartum-related events, and other causes. AIDS and malaria were estimated separately. The model was based on verbal autopsy studies representing more than 100 000 neonatal deaths globally and 16 962 deaths among children aged 1–59 months at the subnational level in India. By applying these proportions to all-cause deaths by state, we estimated cause-specific numbers of deaths and mortality rates at the state, regional, and n...
Source: The Lancet Global Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Related Links:

CONCLUSIONS: Older African American women are willing to engage in discussions about whether or not to continue breast cancer screening and found decision aids helpful. PMID: 32624238 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Journal of the National Medical Association - Category: General Medicine Tags: J Natl Med Assoc Source Type: research
Abstract The interaction of human immunodeficiency virus with human cells is responsible for all stages of the viral life cycle, from the infection of CD4+ cells to reverse transcription, integration, and the assembly of new viral particles. To date, a large amount of OMICs data as well as information from functional genomics screenings regarding the HIV-host interaction has been accumulated in the literature and in public databases. We processed databases containing HIV-host interactions and found 2910 HIV-1-human protein-protein interactions, mostly related to viral group M subtype B, 137 interactions between hu...
Source: Genomics Proteomics ... - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Front Microbiol Source Type: research
Abstract In recent decades, there has been a growing interest about the role of gram negative bacteria in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), especially Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacteriaceae, and Acinetobacter baumannii. The prevalence of these pathogens differs largely according to the local ecology and the geographical location. Identifying gram negative bacteria, and in particular resistant gram negative bacteria, is of paramount importance in patients with CAP because these pathogens are associated with higher clinical severity and unfavorable outcomes. The use of individualized risk factors to predict ea...
Source: Respiratory Care - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Semin Respir Crit Care Med Source Type: research
Abstract With the notable exceptions of the United States and Canada in particular, the global burden of disease in adults due to invasive infection with the dangerous respiratory, bacterial pathogen, Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) remains. This situation prevails despite the major successes of inclusion of polysaccharide conjugate vaccines (PCVs) in many national childhood immunization programs and associated herd protection in adults, as well as the availability of effective antimicrobial agents. Accurate assessment of the geographic variations in the prevalence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) ha...
Source: Respiratory Care - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Semin Respir Crit Care Med Source Type: research
PMID: 32629485 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Respiratory Care - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Semin Respir Crit Care Med Source Type: research
Abstract Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. There is growing appreciation of the burden of noninfluenza viral pathogens in CAP. Due to multiple factors including pneumococcal vaccination programs, declining rates of cigarette smoking, an aging population, and increasingly sensitive diagnostic tests, respiratory viruses are now the most common pathogens detected in CAP, outpacing Streptococcus pneumoniae. Noninfluenza respiratory pathogens are widely accepted as causal pathogens in CAP including in immunocompetent patients. This review provides an overview of f...
Source: Respiratory Care - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Semin Respir Crit Care Med Source Type: research
Abstract Members of the Nocardia genus are ubiquitous in the environment. These aerobic, gram-positive organisms can lead to life-threatening infection, typically in immunocompromised hosts such as solid organ transplant recipients or those receiving immunosuppressive medications for other reasons. This current review discusses the microbiology of nocardiosis, risk factors for infection, clinical manifestations, methods for diagnosis, and treatment. Nocardiosis primarily affects the lung but may also cause skin and soft tissue infection, cerebral abscess, bloodstream infection, or infection involving other organs....
Source: Respiratory Care - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Semin Respir Crit Care Med Source Type: research
Abstract In endemic areas, dimorphic fungal infections due to Histoplasma capsulatum, Blastomyces dermatitidis, and Coccidioides posadasii/immitis account for up to 30% of cases of community-acquired pneumonia. Because respiratory manifestations are often indistinguishable from common bacterial causes of pneumonia, the diagnosis of pulmonary histoplasmosis, blastomycosis, and coccidioidomycosis is often delayed and associated with antibiotics overuse. In addition to being highly endemic to certain regions of North America, dimorphic fungi have global significance due to established areas of endemicity in all six i...
Source: Respiratory Care - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Semin Respir Crit Care Med Source Type: research
C, Torres A Abstract Q fever is a zoonotic infectious disease caused by the Coxiella burnetii bacterium. It is an obligate intracellular pathogen with a high infection capacity that proliferates exclusively in an acidified medium, forming a lysosome-like vacuole. It presents a peculiar phenomenon called "antigenic phase variation," produced by a modification in the complexity of the membrane lipopolysaccharides. Q fever can be found worldwide and presents variable clinical features and geographical distribution. It mostly affects people in rural areas who are in contact with animals. The most common type...
Source: Respiratory Care - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Semin Respir Crit Care Med Source Type: research
ConclusionThe countries in this region needs to work hard to reduce this burden. This requires huge investment especially the finance and human resource development.
Source: International Journal of Africa Nursing Sciences - Category: African Health Source Type: research
More News: AIDS Vaccine | Child Development | Children | Diarrhoea | HIV AIDS | India Health | Infectious Diseases | International Medicine & Public Health | Legislation | Malaria | Malaria Vaccine | Measles | Measles Vaccine | Men | Meningitis | Meningitis Vaccine | Perinatology & Neonatology | Pneomococcal Vaccine | Pneumonia | Study | Vaccines