Public Health Panorama of Operational Research: A Narrative Review
Operational research (OR) is a relatively new, applied branch of mathematics, which helps provide a scientifc base for the management and problem ‑solving. At present, its application in public health issues is gaining importance both nationally and internationally, particularly in program management and policy making. It is an interdisciplinary team approach that requires managers and researchers towork together toward identifcation of the problems and implementation of optimal solutions. There is rising importance accorded by international and national agencies to invest resources in OR and guide program implementation in public health, and the global fund to fght TB, AIDS, and malaria allows up to 10% of each grant to be allocated for OR. There are multitude of research methods used in the feld of health. These felds of OR, implementation research, and health system research are a source of confusion for researchers. OR may sometimes be used interchangeably with implementation research or under the subheading of health system research. OR using various qualitative and mathematical models provides solutions which are currently being applied to overcome the obstacles in health policy making and implementation. Integration of OR with monitoring and evaluationis a new paradigm in program management. This paper aims to summarize the theme, relevance, approach, methods, and applications and challenges of OR in the feld of public health and how it had led to policy changes in t...
[Monitor] In 2016, deaths caused by viral hepatitis surpassed all chronic infectious diseases, including HIV/Aids, malaria and tuberculosis, according to a Global Burden of Disease study. The prevalence of hepatitis B in Uganda stands at 4.1 per cent, which means that 1.75 million people are infected. This is according to a study carried out by the Ministry of Health in partnership with the Centre for Disease Control (CDC) and the World Health Organisation (WHO).
[Ghana Govt.] A five-member delegation from the Ministry of Health in Uganda with support from the Global Fund to fight AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria, is in Ghana to understudy the country's best practices in health care waste management.
Conclusions: Many facilities use innovative practices along the HIV care cascade to address bottlenecks and challenges. These have the potential to improve the quality and efficiency of service delivery and support the attainment of the 90-90-90 treatment targets. Replicating these practices would require further implementation research and a mind shift of donors, governments, and implementers from a metric of coverage to a stronger focus on efficiency and impact.
Advances in medical technology continue apace, with sophisticated new medical devices and therapies becoming available on an ongoing basis. However, medical technology often comes at a premium, and for low-resource regions sometimes even relatively b...
[New Dawn] The Global Fund congratulated the United Kingdom for demonstrating outstanding leadership in global health with a strong commitment to help end AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria and save millions of lives around the world.
[Global Fund] Tokyo -The Global Fund praised the great leadership by the Government of Japan for its renewed, strong commitment against AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria with funding that will contribute to saving one million lives in the coming three-year period.
[WHO] A new scorecard -- the first to examine hepatitis prevalence and response in the World Health Organization (WHO) African region, shows that only three of the 47 countries are on track to eliminate the disease that affects one in 15 people in the region. Dying of viral hepatitis in Africa is becoming a bigger threat than dying of AIDS, malaria or tuberculosis.
(Rockefeller University Press) Researchers in Japan have discovered that the Plasmodium parasites responsible for malaria rely on a human liver cell protein for their development into a form capable of infecting red blood cells and causing disease. The study, which will be published June 12 in the Journal of Experimental Medicine, suggests that targeting this human protein, known as CXCR4, could be a way to block the parasite's life cycle and prevent the development of malaria.
In 2016, musculoskeletal (MSK) injuries accounted for more deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) than HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria combined .Despite these data, injuries, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), receive less financial support, and care is focused on prevention rather than treatment [2,3]. Many healthcare facilities in LMICs are underprepared to manage the increasing volume of patients with serious injuries [4,5].
Environmental and climate changes can profoundly affect the population physical and mental health. Environmental medicine focuses on interactions between human health and the environment, including factors such as polluted air and water, exposure to toxic chemicals linked to diseases. Pollution is the largest environmental cause of disease and premature death in the world today. Diseases caused by pollution were responsible for an estimated 9 million premature deaths in 2015 —16% of all deaths worldwide—three times more deaths than from AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria combined, and 15 times more than from all w...