Voltage- and calcium-gated ion channels of neurons in the vertebrate retina

Publication date: Available online 10 May 2019Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye ResearchAuthor(s): Matthew J. Van Hook, Scott Nawy, Wallace B. ThoresonAbstractIn this review, we summarize studies investigating the types and distribution of voltage- and calcium-gated ion channels in the different classes of retinal neurons: rods, cones, horizontal cells, bipolar cells, amacrine cells, interplexiform cells, and ganglion cells. We discuss differences among cell subtypes within these major cell classes, as well as differences among species, and consider how different ion channels shape the responses of different neurons. For example, even though second-order bipolar and horizontal cells do not typically generate fast sodium-dependent action potentials, many of these cells nevertheless possess fast sodium currents that can enhance their kinetic response capabilities. Ca2+ channel activity can also shape response kinetics as well as regulating synaptic release. The L-type Ca2+ channel subtype, CaV1.4, expressed in photoreceptor cells exhibits specific properties matching the particular needs of these cells such as limited inactivation which allows sustained channel activity and maintained synaptic release in darkness. The particular properties of K+ and Cl− channels in different retinal neurons shape resting membrane potentials, response kinetics and spiking behavior. A remaining challenge is to characterize the specific distributions of ion channels in the more than 100 in...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

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Publication date: 4 June 2019Source: Cell Reports, Volume 27, Issue 10Author(s): Rong-wei Zhang, Wen-jie Du, David A. Prober, Jiu-lin DuSummaryRetinal waves, the spontaneous patterned neural activities propagating among developing retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), instruct the activity-dependent refinement of visuotopic maps. Although it is known that the wave is initiated successively by amacrine cells and bipolar cells, the behavior and function of glia in retinal waves remain unclear. Using multiple in vivo methods in larval zebrafish, we found that Müller glial cells (MGCs) display wave-like spontaneous activiti...
Source: Cell Reports - Category: Cytology Source Type: research
Eye, Published online: 03 June 2019; doi:10.1038/s41433-019-0470-7Correction: Peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer and ganglion cell complex degeneration in Egyptian patients with bipolar disorder
Source: Eye - Category: Opthalmology Authors: Source Type: research
Publication date: 14 May 2019Source: Cell Reports, Volume 27, Issue 7Author(s): Rachel A. Care, David B. Kastner, Irina De la Huerta, Simon Pan, Atrey Khoche, Luca Della Santina, Clare Gamlin, Chad Santo Tomas, Jenita Ngo, Allen Chen, Yien-Ming Kuo, Yvonne Ou, Felice A. DunnSummaryResilience of neural circuits has been observed in the persistence of function despite neuronal loss. In vision, acuity and sensitivity can be retained after 50% loss of cones. While neurons in the cortex can remodel after input loss, the contributions of cell-type-specific circuits to resilience are unknown. Here, we study the effects of partial...
Source: Cell Reports - Category: Cytology Source Type: research
ig RR Abstract In a juvenile toxicology program, an unexpected finding of vacuolation of inner nuclear, ganglion cell, and nerve fiber layers of the retina was observed microscopically in routine Davidson's fixed and hematoxylin and eosin-stained tissue sections of eyes in beagle dogs at approximately 5 weeks of age. There was no necrosis or degeneration of the affected cells and no associated inflammation. Fluorescein angiography revealed no vascular leakage. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) indicated swollen cells in the same layers of the retina as observed at light microscopic examination. Transmission elect...
Source: Toxicologic Pathology - Category: Pathology Authors: Tags: Toxicol Pathol Source Type: research
The expression and function of TRPV4 channels in primate retinal ganglion cells and bipolar cells, Published online: 07 May 2019; doi:10.1038/s41419-019-1576-3The expression and function of TRPV4 channels in primate retinal ganglion cells and bipolar cells
Source: Cell death and disease - Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 1 May 2019Source: NeuronAuthor(s): Jamie Johnston, Sofie-Helene Seibel, Léa Simone Adele Darnet, Sabine Renninger, Michael Orger, Leon LagnadoSummarySensory systems must reduce the transmission of redundant information to function efficiently. One strategy is to continuously adjust the sensitivity of neurons to suppress responses to common features of the input while enhancing responses to new ones. Here we image the excitatory synaptic inputs and outputs of retinal ganglion cells to understand how such dynamic predictive coding is implemented in the analysis of spatial patterns. S...
Source: Neuron - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Maria R. Gancheva1*, Karlea L. Kremer1, Stan Gronthos2,3 and Simon A. Koblar1,3,4 1Stroke Research Programme Laboratory, Adelaide Medical School, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia 2Mesenchymal Stem Cell Laboratory, Adelaide Medical School, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia 3South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute, Adelaide, SA, Australia 4Central Adelaide Local Health Network, Adelaide, SA, Australia Stroke is a leading cause of permanent disability world-wide, but aside from rehabilitatio...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Juncai He1,2, Congjian Zhao1,2, Jiaman Dai1,2, Chuan Huang Weng1,2, Bai Shi Jiao Bian1,2, Yu Gong1,2, Lingling Ge1,2, Yajie Fang1,2, Hui Liu1,2, Haiwei Xu1,2* and Zheng Qin Yin1,2* 1Southwest Hospital/Southwest Eye Hospital, Third Military Medical University (Amy Medical University), Chongqing, China 2Key Lab of Visual Damage and Regeneration and Restoration of Chongqing, Chongqing, China Resident microglia are the main immune cells in the retina and play a key role in the pathogenesis of retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Many previous studies on the roles of microglia mainly focused on the neurotoxicity or neuroprotec...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 10 April 2019Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Xuwen Zhang, Ilaria Piano, Andrea Messina, Vanessa D'Antongiovanni, Fabiana Crò, Giovanni Provenzano, Yuri Bozzi, Claudia Gargini, Simona CasarosaAbstractDefective cortical processing of visual stimuli and altered retinal function have been described in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) patients. In keeping with these findings, anatomical and functional defects have been found in the visual cortex and retina of mice bearing mutations for ASD-associated genes. Here we sought to investigate the anatomy and function of the adult retina of Engra...
Source: Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Conclusion and Perspectives Since their cloning 20 years ago, the physiological importance of TREK-1 channels has continued to grow (Figure 3). Today, TREK-1 channels have been shown to be important and their presence is essential in a number of physiopathological processes. Their involvement in these different processes demonstrate the necessity to design pharmacological modulators, activators or inhibitors, of these channels to correct any TREK-1-related dysfunctions. Despites a number of studies and many molecule screenings, only few putative new drugs were identified. The activators belonging to the ML and BL series ...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
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