How Nipah virus spreads from person to person: Lessons from 14 years of investigations

(Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health) The deadly Nipah virus, which is carried by bats and occasionally infects people, is more likely to be transmitted from person to person when the infected patient is older, male and/or has breathing difficulties, according to a study co-led by scientists at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

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ter Recent nosocomial transmission events of emerging and re-emerging viruses, including Ebola virus, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, Nipah virus, and Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever orthonairovirus, have highlighted the risk of nosocomial transmission of emerging viruses in health-care settings. In particular, concerns and precautions have increased regarding the use of aerosol-generating medical procedures when treating patients with such viral infections. In spite of increasing associations between aerosol-generating medical procedures and the nosocomial transmission of viruses, we still have...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
Cedar virus (CedV) is a bat-borne henipavirus related to Nipah virus (NiV) and Hendra virus (HeV), zoonotic agents of fatal human disease. CedV receptor-binding protein (G) shares only ∼30% sequence identity with those of NiV and HeV, although they can all use ephrin-B2 as an entry receptor. We demonstrate that...
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research
This article provides the groundwork and insights as a value addition toward an India-specific framework of action for response and recovery for Nipah outbreaks in future.
Source: Indian Journal of Public Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Source Type: research
Authors: Anam AM, Ahmad J, Huq SMR, Rabbani R PMID: 31497792 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh - Category: General Medicine Tags: J R Coll Physicians Edinb Source Type: research
Abstract Maintenance of Hendra virus (HeV) in pteropid bat populations has been associated with spillover events in horses, humans and dogs. Experimental studies have demonstrated infections for several other species including guinea pigs, cats and ferrets. The criteria of a sensitive and specific serological test that is effective for a range of species, but which does not require use of live virus, has not been satisfactorily addressed by currently available tests. We have evaluated the use of two HeV neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in a blocking format enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (bELISA) to det...
Source: Journal of Virological Methods - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: J Virol Methods Source Type: research
Nadine Krüger The Ghana virus (GhV) is phylogenetically related to the zoonotic henipaviruses Nipah (NiV) and Hendra virus. Although GhV uses the highly conserved receptor ephrin-B2, the fusogenicity is restricted to cell lines of bat origin. Furthermore, the surface expression of the GhV attachment glycoprotein (G) is reduced compared to NiV and most of this protein is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Here, we generated truncated as well as chimeric GhV G proteins and investigated the influence of the structural domains (cytoplasmic tail, transmembrane domain, ectodomain) of this protein on the intrac...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Nipah virus is an emerging pathogenic paramyxovirus responsible for sporadic and isolated outbreaks of severe respiratory and neurologic disease in Southern Asia. As a zoonotic virus, disease can manifest in both animals and human with indigenous fruit bats acting as natural reservoirs of the virus. The effects of viral infection vary from acute respiratory distress to fatal encephalitis. There are currently no approved therapeutics or vaccines against the virus, and growing concerns that this highly pathogenic infection has the potential to cause larger epidemics capable of inflicting significant mortality burden.Like the...
Source: NIH OTT Licensing Opportunities - Category: Research Authors: Source Type: research
Authors: Thulaseedaran NK, Kumar KGS, Kumar J, Geetha P, Jayachandran NV, Kamalasanan CG, Mathew S, Pv S Abstract During May 2018 there occurred an outbreak in Kerala, which started in Soopikkada Village, Changarothu Grama Panchayath in Perambra Taluk, Kozhikode district, of a febrile illness with altered sensorium and ARDS. The diagnosis was made from the second case that it is the dreaded nipah infection. Following that 18 cases tested positive for nipah virus infection of which 2 survived. Also there were four deaths with similar clinical picture but which occurred before the virus was identified. They were cons...
Source: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India - Category: General Medicine Tags: J Assoc Physicians India Source Type: research
Authors: Av R, Sadanandan S, Thulaseedharan NK, Kg SK, Pallivalappil B, As AK Abstract Nipah Virus Infection is an emerging zoonotic infection which presents with acute encephalitis and respiratory distress syndrome. It is associated with high mortality and classified as Biosafety level 4 organisms in view of its features which make it a potential agent for Bioterrorism. Experience with broad spectrum antiviral agent Ribavirin is promising in reducing the mortality and morbidity. PMID: 31313551 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India - Category: General Medicine Tags: J Assoc Physicians India Source Type: research
Isolating adults with respiratory symptoms resulting from Nipah virus infection may help stem the spread of the virus, a New England Journal of Medicinestudy suggests.
Source: JAMA - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
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