Challenges of investigating a large food-borne norovirus outbreak across all branches of a restaurant group in the United Kingdom, October 2016.

Challenges of investigating a large food-borne norovirus outbreak across all branches of a restaurant group in the United Kingdom, October 2016. Euro Surveill. 2019 May;24(18): Authors: Morgan M, Watts V, Allen D, Curtis D, Kirolos A, Macdonald N, Maslen E, Morgan D, Saei A, Sedgwick J, Stevenson J, Turbitt D, Vivancos R, Waugh C, Williams C, Decraene V Abstract During October and November 2016, over 1,000 customers and staff reported gastroenteritis after eating at all 23 branches of a restaurant group in the United Kingdom. The outbreak coincided with a new menu launch and norovirus was identified as the causative agent. We conducted four retrospective cohort studies; one among all restaurant staff and three in customers at four branches. We investigated the dishes consumed, reviewed recipes, interviewed chefs and inspected restaurants to identify common ingredients and preparation methods for implicated dishes. Investigations were complicated by three public health agencies concurrently conducting multiple analytical studies, the complex menu with many shared constituent ingredients and the high media attention. The likely source was a contaminated batch of a nationally distributed ingredient, but analytical studies were unable to implicate a single ingredient. The most likely vehicle was a new chipotle chilli product imported from outside the European Union, that was used uncooked in the implicated dishes. This outbreak exemplifies the possibility of...
Source: Euro Surveill - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

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Norovirus (NoV) is recognized as a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) outbreaks in settings globally. Studies have shown that employees played an important role in the transmission mode during some N...
Source: BMC Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Research article Source Type: research
Abstract Norovirus is known as a major cause of several acute gastroenteritis (AGE) outbreaks each year. A study was conducted to develop a unique multi epitope subunit vaccine against human norovirus by adopting reverse vaccinology approach. The entire viral proteome of Norwalk virus was retrieved and allowed for further in silico study to predict highly antigenic epitopes through antigenicity, transmembrane topology screening, allergenicity assessment, toxicity analysis, population coverage analysis and molecular docking approach. Capsid protein VP1 and protein VP2 were identified as most antigenic viral protein...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research
A recent review highlighted the healthcare burden of norovirus infections in China, prior to 2017. Norovirus infections occurred all year round, with 22-29% detection rates in children (6-35 months old) and adults (including the elderly), predominantly of norovirus GII.4 (70.4%).1 Similarly, in England and Wales in 2016 there were 7795 laboratory reported cases of norovirus and acute gastroenteritis, which was estimated to cost the National Health Service up to £86 million annually in bed closures and staff absences,2,3 making norovirus the second-largest contributor of gastrointestinal disease hospital burden in England.
Source: Journal of Infection - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research
Abstract Norovirus (NoV) is now recognized as a major cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks, worldwide. Norovirus replication mechanisms are still poorly understood, mainly because a reliable cell culture system is still lacking. The present study aims at understanding some aspects of the immune response against norovirus, and particularly the capacity of virus like particles (VLPs) from an Italian strain, belonging to the GII.4 genotype predominating worldwide, to interact with target cells via Toll Like Receptors (TLRs). The capacity of GII.4 NoV VLPs to interact and cause the activation of TLR2, 4 and 5 was studie...
Source: Immunology Letters - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research
Noroviruses are a leading cause of sporadic cases and outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) worldwide.1 Norovirus outbreak surveillance mechanisms are already established in developed countries, where about 50% of all outbreaks of AGE occur.2 However, in developing countries including China, most studies have focused on sporadic AGE, and the epidemiological features of norovirus outbreaks remain unclear.
Source: Journal of Infection - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Source Type: research
ConclusionsVarious HuNoV genotypes including GII.2, GII.4, GII.6, and GII.17 were shown to be associated with various types of outbreak sites (at childcare and educational facilities, involving cases of food poisoning, and at elderly nursing homes) in this study. These genotypes emerged in recent years, and their prevalence patterns differed from each other. Moreover, differences in outbreak sites and viral load of patients among the genotypes were identified.
Source: Gut Pathogens - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Jianrong Li Human norovirus (HuNoV) is responsible for more than 95% of outbreaks of acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Despite major efforts, there are no vaccines or effective therapeutic interventions against this virus. Chicken immunoglobulin Y (IgY)-based passive immunization has been shown to be an effective strategy to prevent and treat many enteric viral diseases. Here, we developed a highly efficient bioreactor to generate high titers of HuNoV-specific IgY in chicken yolks using a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus expressing HuNoV capsid protein (rVSV-VP1) as an antigen. We first demonstrated...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Conclusions: A NoV outbreak was determined first time in Malaysia. Environmental assessment showed poor hygienic conditions in the school ’s kitchen. The number of infected students increased considerably despite the implementation of preventive and control measures. Quarantine was effective to stop the outbreak which is characteristics of NoV outbreak.
Source: The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
This study highlights the need for further risk surveillance for NoV contamination in berries produced in the Heilongjiang Province and recommends region-extended monitoring of retail berries for NoV. PMID: 31027765 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Food Microbiology - Category: Food Science Authors: Tags: Food Microbiol Source Type: research
AbstractNorovirus (NoV) is the leading cause of acute viral gastroenteritis outbreaks in the world. These outbreaks are frequently associated with bivalve shellfish consumption, particularly because these products are often eaten raw or only slightly cooked. In Morocco, regulations concerning the acceptable levels of enteric bacteria indicator organisms in these products have been put in place. However, these regulations do not take into account the risk of viral contamination, and many gastroenteritis outbreaks have been linked to the ingestion of bivalve shellfish from areas that comply with the current food safety crite...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - Category: Virology Source Type: research
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