Pregnant women & vaccines against emerging epidemic threats: Ethics guidance for preparedness, research, and response.

Pregnant women &vaccines against emerging epidemic threats: Ethics guidance for preparedness, research, and response. Vaccine. 2019 May 03;: Authors: Krubiner CB, Faden RR, Karron RA, Little MO, Lyerly AD, Abramson JS, Beigi RH, Cravioto AR, Durbin AP, Gellin BG, Gupta SB, Kaslow DC, Kochhar S, Luna F, Saenz C, Sheffield JS, Tindana PO, PREVENT Working Group Abstract Zika virus, influenza, and Ebola have called attention to the ways in which infectious disease outbreaks can severely - and at times uniquely - affect the health interests of pregnant women and their offspring. These examples also highlight the critical need to proactively consider pregnant women and their offspring in vaccine research and response efforts to combat emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases. Historically, pregnant women and their offspring have been largely excluded from research agendas and investment strategies for vaccines against epidemic threats, which in turn can lead to exclusion from future vaccine campaigns amidst outbreaks. This state of affairs is profoundly unjust to pregnant women and their offspring, and deeply problematic from the standpoint of public health. To ensure that the needs of pregnant women and their offspring are fairly addressed, new approaches to public health preparedness, vaccine research and development, and vaccine delivery are required. This Guidance offers 22 concrete recommendations that provide a roadmap for the ethically responsib...
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research

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Publication date: 15 February 2021Source: Journal of Hazardous Materials, Volume 404, Part BAuthor(s): Jinsoo Lee, Seong-Jin Choi, Ji-Seong Jeong, Sang Yun Kim, Sang-Hyub Lee, Mi Jin Yang, Seung-Jin Lee, Young-Jun Shin, Kyuhong Lee, Eun Ju Jeong, Sang-Yoon Nam, Wook-Joon Yu
Source: Journal of Hazardous Materials - Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research
Conclusions: This review results revealed a low utilization of postnatal care service. Antenatal care service utilization has a positive effect on postnatal care service utilization. Policymakers and programmers better considered more antenatal care service use as one strategy of enhancing the utilization of postnatal care service. PMID: 33029402 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Journal of Pregnancy - Category: OBGYN Tags: J Pregnancy Source Type: research
Authors: Debelew GT Abstract Despite several efforts globally, the problem of perinatal mortality remained an unsolved agenda. As a result, it continued to be an essential part of the third sustainable development goals to end preventable child deaths by 2030. With a rate of 33 per 1000 births, Ethiopia has the highest level of perinatal mortality in the world. Thus, determining the magnitude and identifying the determinants are very crucial for evidence-based interventions. A community-based longitudinal study was conducted in Southwest Ethiopia among 3474 pregnant women to estimate the magnitude of perinatal mort...
Source: Journal of Pregnancy - Category: OBGYN Tags: J Pregnancy Source Type: research
This study was aimed at assessing the magnitude of induced abortion and associated factors among students in Hawassa University, southern region, Ethiopia, 2019. Methods: An institutional-based cross-sectional study was conducted among a total of 422 students selected on the bases of a probability simple random sampling method. A pretested structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Analysis was made with SPSS 20. Descriptive summary and inferential statistics (binary logistic regression) were used with a 95% CI and P value of less than 5% as a level of significance. Findings were presented in tables, figure, an...
Source: Journal of Pregnancy - Category: OBGYN Tags: J Pregnancy Source Type: research
Conclusions: (1) Data at our center suggests at least a regional implementation gap in GBS screening and IAP. (2) The decline in the resistance rate ofE. coli for all antimicrobial substances might indicate that the reduction of prenatal antibiotics use is beneficial and that neonatal antibiotic stewardship programs should include pregnant women as well.What is Known:• GBS screening and intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis led to a 32%-reduction in GBS disease in Germany with a 0.75 (92:122) ratio of early-onset disease to late-onset disease in 2009–2010.• Prenatal antibiotic use might increase the risk of E....
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research
In this study, we explored its health effects on the female offspring of mice that had been exposed during pregnancy. We found that exposure of pregnant mice to nitenpyram resulted in decreased levels of serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, and glucose in female offspring, and additional research uncovered gut microbiota disturbances, accompanied by abnormal fecal metabolic profiles. Based on Pearson correlation analysis, we found that decreased abundance of Lactobacillus may play the most critical role, and changes in gut bacterial purine metabolism, BCAAs metabolism, and the TCA cycle are all closely related to the ab...
Source: Chemosphere - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research
[New Zimbabwe] ATLEAST 415 school going girls dropped out of exam classes in Manicaland province during the Covid-19 lockdown period mainly due to marriage and pregnancy.
Source: AllAfrica News: Pregnancy and Childbirth - Category: OBGYN Source Type: news
Authors: Fentie K, Wakayo T, Gizaw G Abstract Background: Anemia defined as a low blood hemoglobin concentration is public health importance. The adolescence age group is the most neglected in public health and nutrition research as priorities are usually given to pregnant women, lactating mothers, and their children less than 2 years. Current Ethiopian Food and Nutrition policy included adolescent girls in the most at-risk group for nutritional demands; however, only a few published studies have assessed a deficiency of anemia and associated factors to tackle the intergenerational cycle of malnutrition. Object...
Source: Anemia - Category: Hematology Tags: Anemia Source Type: research
In this study, we evaluated ATA as a potential antiviral drug against ZIKV replication. The antiviral activity of ATA against ZIKV replication in vitro showed median inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of 13.87 ± 1.09 μM and 33.33 ± 1.13 μM in Vero and A549 cells, respectively; without showing any cytotoxic effect in both cell lines (median cytotoxic concentration (CC50)> 1,000 μM). Moreover, ATA protected both cell types from ZIKV-induced cytopathic effect (CPE) and apoptosis in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. In addition, pre-treatment of Vero cells with ATA for up to 72 h also resulted...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Source: Wellcome Trust. Published: 9/2018. This 96-page guidance provides a roadmap for the ethically responsible, socially just, and respectful inclusion of the interests of pregnant women in the development and deployment of vaccines against emerging pathogens. It discusses how recent epidemics, including Zika virus, Lassa Fever, Ebola, and H1N1 influenza, have highlighted the ways in which infectious disease outbreaks can severely affect the health interests of pregnant women and their offspring. It specifies 22 concrete recommendations, organized around three key areas: public health preparedness, R&D, and vaccine delivery. (PDF)
Source: Disaster Lit: Resource Guide for Disaster Medicine and Public Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news
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