Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitors for the Potential Treatment of Brain Disorders; A Mini-Review With Special Focus on Linagliptin and Stroke

Cerebral stroke is a leading cause of death and persistent disability of elderly in the world. Moreover, after the age of 55, the risk of stroke doubles with each passing decade. Of all strokes, approximately 85 percent are ischemic, caused by blockage of cerebral arteries and remaining hemorrhagic, caused by intracerebral or subarachnoid bleeding. Although stroke prevention by targeting several risk factors such as diabetes, smoking, sedentary lifestyle, hypertension, alcohol abuse and hyperlipidemia have decreased the stroke incidence, the total number of strokes is increasing due to the population aging. After an ischemic stroke, the damage in the ischemic core occurs very quickly and is irreversible. The surrounding penumbra maintains residual blood flow and can be potentially rescued by timely intervention. However, post-stroke acute pharmacological strategies aimed to reduce stroke-induced brain injury have failed in clinical trials despite being effective in animal models. Approximately 70% of surviving stroke patients eventually recover from stroke-induced neurological impairments after rehabilitation in the post-acute phase. However, about 30% do not recover and remain permanently dependent on supportive care in activities of daily living. Therefore, strategies to improve stroke recovery in the post-acute phase are highly needed. Although preclinical studies pharmacologically targeting stroke recovery show promising results, clinically this field is still underdevelo...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 20 January 2020Source: Trends in Food Science &TechnologyAuthor(s): I.P. Shanura Fernando, BoMi Ryu, Ginnae Ahn, In-Kyu Yeo, You-Jin JeonAbstractBackgroundMetabolic syndrome (MS) defines a group of severe comorbidities, including insulin resistance, abnormal fat accumulation, and high blood pressure that lead to obesity, diabetes, and heart diseases. MS has received a growing concern due to its rising prevalence in many countries. The consumption of high-calorie food, sedentary lifestyle habits, genetic factors, and stress conditions aggravate risk factors for developing metabolic syn...
Source: Trends in Food Science and Technology - Category: Food Science Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 20 January 2020Source: Trends in Food Science &TechnologyAuthor(s): Saikat Sen, Raja Chakraborty, Pratap KalitaAbstractBackgroundRice (Oryza sativa L.) is the most popular staple food grain and an important source of fibre, energy, minerals, vitamins, and other biomolecules. Rice parts exhibited a number of health beneficial effect in pre-clinical/clinical studies. Rice constituents are getting popularity in preparation of pharmaceutical adjuvant, food additives and supplements.Scope &approachIn this paper, we summarized the available literature on health-promoting and therapeutic...
Source: Trends in Food Science and Technology - Category: Food Science Source Type: research
The objective of this study was to develop a simple method for detecting lipid oxidation through the color change of a composite film. Schiff's reagent which can form color compound with lipid oxidation products—aldehydes was incorporated into polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to form the composite film. The effects of PVA molecular weight (Mw), Schiff's reagent/PVA ratio and glycerol content on the response of the composite film to aldehyde were investigated. Sunflower seed oil with various extent of oxidation was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the composite film for lipid oxidation detection. The results showed that t...
Source: LWT Food Science and Technology - Category: Food Science Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 21 January 2020Source: Food ChemistryAuthor(s): A. Mohamed Anis, Yadahally N. SreeramaAbstractProtein glycation plays a vital role in the progression of various diabetes complications. Therefore, inhibition of protein glycation could be a key strategy to prevent these diabetic abnormalities. Evaluation of phenolic compositions and their antiglycation activity revealed that p-coumaric and chlorogenic acids were major phenolic acids in barnyard millet. These phenolics exhibited multiple antioxidant activities in various mechanisms and protected the oxidative DNA damage and hydroxyl radical-...
Source: Food Chemistry - Category: Food Science Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: The clinical polymorphism effectiveness outlined therein will be assured by diagnostic improvements suitable for driving treatment decisions. In light of our experimental results and literature data, the analysis of the SLCO1B1 T521C variant will allow clinicians to take advantage from a better treatment planned for their patients in order to minimize neuromuscular pain and maximize benefits. PMID: 31957862 [PubMed - in process]
Source: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Increased IP is found in 23% of cirrhotic patients. Permeability alterations are significantly more pronounced in patients with advanced LC with the presence of ascites and in those with alcoholic etiology. PMID: 31957845 [PubMed - in process]
Source: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: CD36 can mediate cell apoptosis by inhibiting the expression of the related proteins in nodal Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, and is expected to become a potential therapeutic target for clinical treatment of patients with diabetic nephropathy. PMID: 31957842 [PubMed - in process]
Source: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research
Authors: Nakamura K, Sugai A, Saji E, Kasuga K, Onodera O Abstract Myositis generally affects the proximal muscles. However, we herein report a case of a 48-year-old woman with intractable myositis affecting the intrinsic muscles of the hands. Her myositis, which developed in childhood, was refractory to treatment with steroids and several immunosuppressants, causing walking disability. After experiencing pain and swelling in the hands for six months, she was diagnosed with myositis of the intrinsic muscles of the hands and tested positive for the anti-signal recognition particle antibody. Intravenous immunoglobuli...
Source: Internal Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Intern Med Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine - Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine - Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Source Type: research
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