Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 423: Novel Bat Alphacoronaviruses in Southern China Support Chinese Horseshoe Bats as an Important Reservoir for Potential Novel Coronaviruses

Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 423: Novel Bat Alphacoronaviruses in Southern China Support Chinese Horseshoe Bats as an Important Reservoir for Potential Novel Coronaviruses Viruses doi: 10.3390/v11050423 Authors: Lau Wong Zhang Luk Kwok Ahmed Cai Zhao Teng Tsui Yuen Woo While bats are increasingly recognized as a source of coronavirus epidemics, the diversity and emergence potential of bat coronaviruses remains to be fully understood. Among 1779 bat samples collected in China, diverse coronaviruses were detected in 32 samples from five different bat species by RT-PCR. Two novel alphacoronaviruses, Rhinolophus sinicus bat coronavirus HKU32 (Rs-BatCoV HKU32) and Tylonycteris robustula bat coronavirus HKU33 (Tr-BatCoV HKU33), were discovered from Chinese horseshoe bats in Hong Kong and greater bamboo bats in Guizhou Province, respectively. Genome analyses showed that Rs-BatCoV HKU32 is closely related to BatCoV HKU10 and related viruses from diverse bat families, whereas Tr-BatCoV HKU33 is closely related to BtNv-AlphaCoV and similar viruses exclusively from bats of Vespertilionidae family. The close relatedness of Rs-BatCoV HKU32 to BatCoV HKU10 which was also detected in Pomona roundleaf bats from the same country park suggests that these viruses may have the tendency of infecting genetically distant bat populations of close geographical proximity with subsequent genetic divergence. Moreover, the presence of SARSr-CoV ORF7a-like protein in R...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research

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In this study, we evaluated ATA as a potential antiviral drug against ZIKV replication. The antiviral activity of ATA against ZIKV replication in vitro showed median inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of 13.87 ± 1.09 μM and 33.33 ± 1.13 μM in Vero and A549 cells, respectively; without showing any cytotoxic effect in both cell lines (median cytotoxic concentration (CC50)> 1,000 μM). Moreover, ATA protected both cell types from ZIKV-induced cytopathic effect (CPE) and apoptosis in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. In addition, pre-treatment of Vero cells with ATA for up to 72 h also resulted...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
This article aims at reviewing the various aspects of the global epidemiology of bat coronaviruses (CoVs). Before the SARS epidemic, bats were not known to be hosts for CoVs. In the last 15 years, bats have been found to be hosts of >30 CoVs with complete genomes sequenced, and many more if those without genome sequences are included. Among the four CoV genera, only alphaCoVs and betaCoVs have been found in bats. As a whole, both alphaCoVs and betaCoVs have been detected from bats in Asia, Europe, Africa, North and South America and Australasia; but alphaCoVs seem to be more widespread than betaCoVs, and their detec...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 26 January 2019Source: Computational and Structural Biotechnology JournalAuthor(s): Kin On Kwok, Arthur Tang, Vivian W.I. Wei, Woo Hyun Park, Eng Kiong Yeoh, Steven RileyAbstractThe emergence and reemergence of coronavirus epidemics sparked renewed concerns from global epidemiology researchers and public health administrators. Mathematical models that represented how contact tracing and follow-up may control Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) transmissions were developed for evaluating different infection control interventions, estimating ...
Source: Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal - Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research
(CNN) — From climate change to superbugs, the World Health Organization has laid out 10 big threats to our global health in 2019. And unless these threats get addressed, millions of lives will be in jeopardy. Here’s a snapshot of 10 urgent health issues, according to the United Nations’ public health agency: Not vaccinating when you can One of the most controversial recent health topics in the US is now an international concern. “Vaccine hesitancy — the reluctance or refusal to vaccinate despite the availability of vaccines — threatens to reverse progress made in tackling vaccine-prevent...
Source: WBZ-TV - Breaking News, Weather and Sports for Boston, Worcester and New Hampshire - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Health News CNN Local TV Source Type: news
n Mossman Bats are speculated to be reservoirs of several emerging viruses including coronaviruses (CoVs) that cause serious disease in humans and agricultural animals. These include CoVs that cause severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) and severe acute diarrhea syndrome (SADS). Bats that are naturally infected or experimentally infected do not demonstrate clinical signs of disease. These observations have allowed researchers to speculate that bats are the likely reservoirs or ancestral hosts for several CoVs. In this review, we follow the CoV...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
Abstract Coronaviruses (CoVs) produce a wide spectrum of disease syndromes in different mammalian and avian host species. These viruses are well-recognized for their ability to change tissue tropism, to hurdle the interspecies barriers and to adapt ecological variations. It is predicted that the inherent genetic diversity of CoVs caused by accumulation of point mutations and high frequency of homologous recombination is the principal determinant of these competences. Several CoVs (e.g. Severe acute respiratory syndrome-CoV, Middle East respiratory syndrome-CoV) have been recorded to cross the interspecies barrier,...
Source: Animal Health Research Reviews - Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Tags: Anim Health Res Rev Source Type: research
Authors: Mandil A, Bresee J, Tageldin MA, Azad TM, Khan W Abstract Infectious diseases continue to represent a significant threat to global health security, particularly in the context of increasing globalization, interconnectedness and interdependence. Chief among such threats are influenza viruses and other respiratory pathogens, such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), because of their risk of high transmissibility and acuity of illness. Annual epidemics of seasonal influenza cause an estimated 3-5 million cases of severe illness and more than 500 000 deaths, with the prospect of pandemic...
Source: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal - Category: Middle East Health Tags: East Mediterr Health J Source Type: research
Coronaviruses (CoVs) can cause severe respiratory disease with high fatality rates in humans. The 2002-2003 SARS-CoV epidemic resulted in 8098 cases and 744 deaths, and MERS-CoV, which emerged in 2012, has resulted in 2144 cases and over 750 deaths as of March 2018. Currently, there are no effective prophylactic or therapeutic measures, and because other CoVs are poised to emerge as new human pathogens, there is a need to define a general CoV vaccine solution. Past efforts to develop CoV vaccines have used whole-inactivated virus, live-attenuated virus, recombinant protein subunit, or genetic approaches.CoV spike (S) prote...
Source: NIH OTT Licensing Opportunities - Category: Research Authors: Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 20 August 2018Source: Antiviral ResearchAuthor(s): Hsu-Feng Chu, Chiao-Che Chen, David C. Moses, Yau-Hung Chen, Chao-Hsiung Lin, Ying-Chieh Tsai, Chi-Yuan ChouAbstractPorcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a coronavirus (CoV) discovered in the 1970s that infects the intestinal tract of pigs, resulting in diarrhea and vomiting. It can cause extreme dehydration and death in neonatal piglets. In Asia, modified live attenuated vaccines have been used to control PEDV infection in recent years. However, a new strain of PEDV that belongs to genogroup 2a appeared in the USA in 2013 and then qu...
Source: Antiviral Therapy - Category: Virology Source Type: research
Abstract Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a coronavirus (CoV) discovered in the 1970s that infects the intestinal tract of pigs, resulting in diarrhea and vomiting. It can cause extreme dehydration and death in neonatal piglets. In Asia, modified live attenuated vaccines have been used to control PEDV infection in recent years. However, a new strain of PEDV that belongs to genogroup 2a appeared in the USA in 2013 and then quickly spread to Canada and Mexico as well as Asian and European countries. Due to the less effective protective immunity provided by the vaccines against this new strain, it has caused...
Source: Antiviral Research - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Antiviral Res Source Type: research
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