Mechanisms Involved in Childhood Obesity-Related Bone Fragility

Childhood obesity is one of the major health problems in western countries. The excessive accumulation of adipose tissue causes inflammation, oxidative stress, apoptosis and mitochondrial dysfunctions. Thus, obesity leads to the development of severe co-morbidities including type 2 diabetes mellitus, liver steatosis, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases which can develop early in life. Furthermore, obese children have low bone mineral density and a greater risk of osteoporosis and fractures. The knowledge about the interplay bone tissue and between adipose is still growing, although recent findings suggest that adipose tissue activity on bone can be fat-depot specific. Obesity is associated to a low-grade inflammation that alters the expression of adiponectin, leptin, IL-6, Monocyte Chemotactic Protein 1 (MCP1), TRAIL, LIGHT/TNFSF14, OPG and TNFα. These molecules can affect bone metabolism, thus resulting in osteoporosis. The purpose of this review was to deepen the cellular mechanisms by which obesity may facilitate osteoporosis and bone fractures.
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

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In this study, we exposed wild-type (WT) and AMPKα2−/− mice to PM2.5 every other day via intratracheal instillation for 4 weeks. After PM2.5 exposure, the AMPKα2−/− mice developed more severe lung injury and cardiac dysfunction than were developed in the WT mice; however the administration of metformin was effective in attenuating PM2.5-induced lung injury and cardiac dysfunction in both the WT and AMPKα2−/− mice. In the PM2.5-exposed mice, metformin treatment resulted in reduced systemic and pulmonary inflammation, preserved left ventricular ejection fraction, suppress...
Source: Redox Biology - Category: Biology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 19 October 2019Source: Life SciencesAuthor(s): Lu Fu, Fang Rao, Feihong Lian, Hui Yang, Sujuan Kuang, Shulin Wu, Chunyu Deng, Yumei XueAbstractAimsTo explore the atrial electrical remodeling and the susceptibility of atrial fibrillation (AF) in diabetic rats.Materials and methodsZucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats were chosen as diabetic animal model, and age-matched non-diabetic littermate Zucker lean (ZL) rats as control. AF susceptibility was determined by electrophysiological examination. The current density of Ito, IKur and ICa-L were detected by whole-cell patch-clamp technique, and io...
Source: Life Sciences - Category: Biology Source Type: research
We report the case of two members of the same family with a novel mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) gene variant in the MTND5 gene associated with MELAS syndrome and discuss limitations of genetics studies. The m.13045A>G mutation was detected at very low load in the daughter’s urine cells (5%) and at different levels in the skeletal muscle of both mother (50%) and daughter (84%), being absent in blood, hair and saliva.Our findings suggest that non-invasive genetic assessment in urine cells may not be a sensitive diagnostic method neither a good predictor of disease development in relatives of some families with mtDNA-ass...
Source: Mitochondrion - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research
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Source: Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical - Category: Chemistry Source Type: research
Source: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research
ConclusionDespite the recovery of patients after ACL reconstruction during long-term follow-up in athletes, return to sport activity similar to pre-injury in female, older peoples, overweight patients and athletes with chondral lesion were lower. However, these conditions do not apply to the meniscus rupture.
Source: Journal of Clinical Orthopaedics and Trauma - Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research
Shifting to these type of foods keeps your blood sugar levels steady and increases fat metabolism. → Support PsyBlog for just $4 per month. Enables access to articles marked (M) and removes ads. → Explore PsyBlog's ebooks, all written by Dr Jeremy Dean: Accept Yourself: How to feel a profound sense of warmth and self-compassion The Anxiety Plan: 42 Strategies For Worry, Phobias, OCD and Panic Spark: 17 Steps That Will Boost Your Motivation For Anything Activate: How To Find Joy Again By Changing What You Do
Source: PsyBlog | Psychology Blog - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Tags: Diabetes Source Type: blogs
Authors: Marjot T, Moolla A, Cobbold JF, Hodson L, Tomlinson JW Abstract Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a spectrum of disease, extending from simple steatosis, through to inflammation and fibrosis with a significant risk for the development of cirrhosis. It is highly prevalent and is associated with significant adverse outcomes both through liver-specific morbidity and mortality, but perhaps more importantly, through adverse cardiovascular and metabolic outcomes. It is tightly associated with type 2 diabetes and obesity and both of these conditions drive progressive disease towards the more advanced s...
Source: Endocrine Reviews - Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Rev Source Type: research
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Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
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Source: Current Medical Research and Opinion - Category: Research Tags: Curr Med Res Opin Source Type: research
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