Determination of azithromycin heteroresistant Campylobacter jejuni in traveler ’s diarrhea

AbstractCampylobacter is the most common cause of traveler ’s diarrhea (TD) and human bacterial gastroenteritis. A heteroresistantCampylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) isolate, identified by microbiological methods and characterized with molecular techniques, was obtained from a traveler in Nepal suffering TD. The presence of atypical colonies within the clear zone of inhibition was the first evidence of an atypical phenotype, leading to additional characterization of this heteroresistant strain. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) and population analysis profiling (PAP) demonstrated heteroresistance to azithromycin (AZM), a first-line antibiotic treatment forCampylobacter infections. Molecular analysis indicated a point mutation occurred on the 23S rRNA gene at the A2075G transitions, and the number of mutated gene copies was proportional to AZM resistance. HeteroresistantC. jejuni subpopulations from acute TD are likely underestimated, which may lead to treatment failures, as was the case for this patient. The presence of a heteroresistant strain in a high antibiotic environment may select for additional drug resistance and enable distribution into hospital and local communities.
Source: Gut Pathogens - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

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Abstract SUMMARYCampylobacter is among the four main causes of gastroenteritis worldwide and has increased in both developed and developing countries over the last 10 years. The vast majority of reported Campylobacter infections are caused by Campylobacter jejuni and, to a lesser extent, C. coli; however, the increasing recognition of other emerging Campylobacter pathogens is urgently demanding a better understanding of how these underestimated species cause disease, transmit, and evolve. In parallel to the enhanced clinical awareness of campylobacteriosis due to improved diagnostic protocols, the applicati...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research
ConclusionThe ability of certain antibiotics to induce biofilm formation by a tested C. jejuni strain is of concern, with respect to the effective control of disease caused by this pathogen; however, further work is required to confirm how widespread this feature is.
Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
ConclusionThe results indicate that the rate of resistance to quinolone has gradually increased. Since ST4526 was not isolated in 2000 and 2008, it is likely that ST4526 is rapidly increasing in Japan.
Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
ConclusionsCampylobacter jejuni ST50, ST51 and ST257 are among the top ten of STs isolated in Europe. WGS revealed diversity of serotypes and LOS classes in ST50 strains, that deserves further clinical and epidemiological investigations as it might be related to a risk of post-infectious neurological sequels such as Guillain-Barr é syndrome. Additionally, the results implicate lower pathogenic potential and distinct transmission chains or reservoirs forC. jejuni ST51 isolates responsible for campylobacteriosis in northeastern Poland.
Source: Gut Pathogens - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
ConclusionsCampylobacter is one of the pathogens responsible for BCWG, especially in summer and autumn. Other than the different seasonal distributions, the clinical features of campylobacter-associated BCWG and rotavirus-associated BCWG may be similar.
Source: Seizure - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
This study aims to elucidate the epidemiology of Campylobacter and NTS gastroenteritis and develop a scoring system to differentiate them.Materials and methodsThis retrospective study enrolled 886 children ≤18 years of age, hospitalized due to acute gastroenteritis with stool culture-proven Campylobacter or NTS infection from July 2012 to December 2015. Pearson's chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression were used to compare clinical manifestations and laboratory data. Receiver operating characteristic curves were plotted to evaluate the scoring system.ResultsSeasonality was found in NTS gastroenteritis from ...
Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
ConclusionThe ability of certain antibiotics to induce biofilm formation by aC. jejuni strain tested is of concern with respect to the effective control of disease caused by this pathogen but further work is required to confirm how widespread this feature is.
Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Abstract Campylobacter jejuni is a zoonotic Epsilonproteobacterium that grows in the gastrointestinal tract of birds and mammals, and is the most frequent cause of food-borne bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. As an oxygen-sensitive microaerophile, C. jejuni has to survive high environmental oxygen tensions, adapt to oxygen limitation in the host intestine and resist host oxidative attack. Despite its small genome size, C. jejuni is a versatile and metabolically active pathogen, with a complex and highly branched set of respiratory chains allowing the use of a wide range of electron donors and alternative electr...
Source: Advances in Microbial Physiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Adv Microb Physiol Source Type: research
This study aimed to describe epidemiologic trends in disease notifications and hospital admissions because of Campylobacter gastroenteritis in NZ children from 1997 to 2016. Methods: In this population-based descriptive study, age-specific and age-standardized notification and hospitalization rates were analyzed for Campylobacter infections in children
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research
Although enteric multianalyte syndromic panels are increasingly employed, direct comparisons with traditional methods and the inclusion of host phenotype correlations are limited. Luminex xTAG gastrointestinal pathogen panel (GPP) and culture results are highly concordant. However, phenotypic and microbiological confirmatory testing raises concerns regarding the accuracy of the GPP, especially for Salmonella spp. A total of 3,089 children with gastroenteritis submitted stool specimens, rectal swab specimens, and clinical data. The primary outcome was bacterial pathogen detection agreement for shared targets between culture...
Source: Journal of Clinical Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Bacteriology Source Type: research
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