Combined strategies for tumor immunotherapy with nanoparticles

AbstractA brief review of tumor immunotherapies shows significant advancements in academic research and preclinical studies. Analysis of different immune cell pathways, including macrophage activation, natural killer cells, and dendritic cell presentation show promising  clinical results when targeted with different nanoparticle polymer and gold materials. Following a brief discussion on immuno-oncology successes, detailed results are discussed in macrophage activation, dendritic cell presentation, and lysis of tumor cells with natural killer cells. Common target s include tumor-associated macrophages and induction of the proinflammatory phenotype, dual targeting of cell and humoral immunity with dendritic cells, and creating chimeric antigen receptors on natural killer cells. An analysis of the results shows a variety of nanoparticle synthesis methods are required depending on drug type and tissue type affected by tumors. Future research is discussed in conjunction with a brief analysis of completed clinical trial data on cancer therapies using nanoparticles to date. Although paclitaxel-loaded albumin nanoparticles are most frequently studied, acad emic research shows there may be additional mechanisms of action to elicit anti-tumor activity.
Source: Clinical and Translational Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

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In this study, analysis of antioxidant defense was performed on the blood samples from 184 "aged" individuals aged 65-90+ years, and compared to the blood samples of 37 individuals just about at the beginning of aging, aged 55-59 years. Statistically significant decreases of Zn,Cu-superoxide dismutase (SOD-1), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were observed in elderly people in comparison with the control group. Moreover, an inverse correlation between the activities of SOD-1, CAT, and GSH-Px and the age of the examined persons was found. No age-related changes in glutathione reductas...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
AbstractPurpose of reviewThis paper will focus on novel breast cancer therapies used in clinical practice today, as well as review our understanding of standard therapies and their potential impact on cardiovascular health.Recent findingsEstablished and novel treatments such as anthracyclines, HER2-targeted agents, and immunotherapy have contributed to improvements in breast cancer outcomes; however, these treatments may be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular injury. The number of available breast cancer treatments continues to expand, as does the need for health care providers to understand the potential i...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine - Category: Cardiology Source Type: research
Patients Selection for Immunotherapy in Solid Tumors: Overcome the Naïve Vision of a Single Biomarker. Biomed Res Int. 2019;2019:9056417 Authors: Signorelli D, Giannatempo P, Grazia G, Aiello MM, Bertolini F, Mirabile A, Buti S, Vasile E, Scotti V, Pisapia P, Cona MS, Rolfo C, Malapelle U, Group IY Abstract Immunotherapy, and in particular immune-checkpoints blockade therapy (ICB), represents a new pillar in cancer therapy. Antibodies targeting Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and Programmed Death 1 (PD-1)/Programmed Death Ligand-1 (PD-L1) demonstrated a relevant clinical value in a larg...
Source: Biomed Res - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Biomed Res Int Source Type: research
AbstractStaphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs), as typical superantigens, exhibit promising antitumour activity in the clinic, but their unavoidable side effects related to fever and emesis seriously limit their application for the treatment of malignant tumours. Fortunately, the identification of Staphylococcal enterotoxin-like toxins (SEls), which possess amino acid sequences similar to those of classical SEs but exhibit no or low emetic activity, has provided a set of potential immunomodulatory candidates for cancer therapy. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of SElQ on lymphocyte activation and to further demon...
Source: Medical Microbiology and Immunology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Fight Aging! provides a weekly digest of news and commentary for thousands of subscribers interested in the latest longevity science: progress towards the medical control of aging in order to prevent age-related frailty, suffering, and disease, as well as improvements in the present understanding of what works and what doesn't work when it comes to extending healthy life. Expect to see summaries of recent advances in medical research, news from the scientific community, advocacy and fundraising initiatives to help speed work on the repair and reversal of aging, links to online resources, and much more. This content is...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
AbstractPurpose of reviewImmunotherapies, particularly immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI), are revolutionary cancer therapies being increasingly applied to a broader range of cancers. Our understanding of the mechanism, epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of cardiotoxicity related to immunotherapies remains limited. We aim to synthesize the limited current literature on cardiotoxicity of ICIs and to share our opinions on the diagnosis and treatment of this condition.Recent findingsThe incidence of ICI-associated myocarditis ranges from 0.1 to 1%. Patients with ICI-associated myocarditis often have a fulminant course wit...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine - Category: Cardiology Source Type: research
Dr. Maria Martinez-Lage was  kind enough to write the following summary of events at today ’s American Association of Neuropathologists meeting in Atlanta:The opening day of the 95th Annual Meeting of the American Association of Neuropathologists in Atlanta featured a special course dedicated to a topic both old and new: what happens when treatments go awry? Under the title “Unintended Consequences: The Iatrogenic Neuropathology of Systemic Therapies” the faculty discussed neurologic adverse effects of novel immunotherapies,other cancer and non-cancer related t...
Source: neuropathology blog - Category: Radiology Tags: meetings Source Type: blogs
It is well known that the present dominant approaches to cancer therapy - meaning toxic, damaging chemotherapy and radiotherapy, only slowly giving way to immunotherapy - produce a significant burden of senescent cells. Indeed, forcing active cancer cells into senescence is the explicit goal for many treatments, and remains an aspirational goal for a large fraction of ongoing cancer research. Most senescent cells self-destruct, or are destroyed by the immune system, but some always linger - and more so in older people, due to the progressive incapacity of the immune system. An immune system that becomes ineffective in supp...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs
Abstract The retinoblastoma RB1 gene has been identified in the 80s as the first tumor suppressor. RB1 loss of function, as well alterations in its pathway, occur in most human cancers and often have prognostic value. RB1 has a key role in restraining cell cycle entry and, along with its family members, regulates a myriad of cellular processes and affects cell response to a variety of stimuli, ultimately determining cell fate. Consistently, RB1 status is a crucial determinant of cell response to antitumoral therapies, impacting on the outcome of both traditional and modern anti-cancer strategies, including precisi...
Source: Biochemical Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Biochem Pharmacol Source Type: research
Recent perspective on CAR and Fcγ-CR T cell immunotherapy for cancers: Preclinical evidence versus clinical outcomes. Biochem Pharmacol. 2019 Jun 06;: Authors: Marei HE, Althani A, Caceci T, Arriga R, Sconocchia T, Ottaviani A, Lanzilli G, Roselli M, Caratelli S, Cenciarelli C, Sconocchia G Abstract The chimeric antigen receptor Tcell (CAR-T cell) immunotherapy currently represents a hot research trend and it is expected to revolutionize the field of cancer therapy. Promising outcomes have been achieved using CAR-T cell therapy for haematological malignancies. Despite encouraging results, severa...
Source: Biochemical Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Biochem Pharmacol Source Type: research
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