The evolving role of diet in prostate cancer risk and progression

Purpose of review This overview examines the rationale for dietary interventions for prostate cancer by summarizing the current evidence base and biological mechanisms for the involvement of diet in disease incidence and progression. Recent findings Recent data have further solidified the association between insulin resistance and prostate cancer with the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance. Data also show that periprostatic adipocytes promote extracapsular extension of prostate cancer through chemokines, thereby providing a mechanistic explanation for the association observed between obesity and high-grade cancer. Regarding therapeutics, hyperinsulinemia may be the cause of resistance to phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase inhibitors in the treatment of prostate cancer, leading to new investigations combining these drugs with ketogenic diets. Summary Given the recently available data regarding insulin resistance and adipokine influence on prostate cancer, dietary strategies targeting metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and obesity should be further explored. In macronutrient-focused therapies, low carbohydrate/ketogenic diets should be favored in such interventions because of their superior impact on weight loss and metabolic parameters and encouraging clinical data. Micronutrients, including the carotenoid lycopene which is found in highest concentrations in tomatoes, may also play a role in prostate cancer prevention and prognosis through complementary metabolic...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: GENITOURINARY SYSTEM: Edited by Arif Hussain Source Type: research

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Abstract With the onset of a metabolic syndrome epidemic and the increasing life expectancy, erectile dysfunction (ED) has become a more common condition. As incidence and prevalence increase, the medical field is focused on providing more appropriate therapies. It is common knowledge that ED is a chronic condition that is also associated with a myriad of other disorders. Conditions such as aging, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, obesity, prostatic hypertrophy, and prostate cancer, among others, have a direct implication on the onset and progression of ED. Characterization and recognition of risk factors may help ...
Source: Asian Journal of Andrology - Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Tags: Asian J Androl Source Type: research
Several studies highlight that testosterone deficiency is associated and predicts increased risk of developing metabolic disorders, and, that it is highly prevalent in obesity, metabolic syndrome and type-2 diabetes mellitus. Models of gonadotropin releasing hormone deficiency and androgen deprivation in patients with prostate cancer suggest that hypogonadotropic hypogonadism might contribute to onset or further worsen metabolic conditions by means of increased fat mass and insulin resistance. Nevertheless, in functional hypogonadism, such as late onset hypogonadism, the relationship between hypogonadotropic hypogonadism a...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Conclusion: 3T3-L1 cells, treated with LPV/RTV, show altered lipid content due to increased miRNA-218 levels, which affects lipin-1 mRNA. Moreover, increased miRNA-218 levels were inversely correlated with changes in GLUT-4 expression, which suggests a role for miRNA-218 in mediating the insulin resistance consequent to cART. Introduction Metabolic syndrome is a serious consequence of combined Antiretroviral Therapy (cART). HIV-associated metabolic syndrome is often accompanied by lipodystrophy (LS), the redistribution of body fat with loss of subcutaneous adipose tissue in face, limbs and buttocks, concomitant wit...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Conclusions In this review, we analyzed mechanisms through which mitobolites, a distinct set of mitochondria-generated metabolites, can be released from mitochondria and then act as second messengers that contribute to cellular and organismal aging by regulating longevity-defining processes outside of mitochondria. Our analysis indicates that in eukaryotes across phyla, these second messengers of cellular aging exhibit the following common features: (1) they are produced in mitochondria in response to certain changes in the nutrient, stress, proliferation or age status of the cell; it remains unknown, however, what kind o...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
Dan Hu1†, Meijin Zhang2†, Hejun Zhang1, Yan Xia1, Jinxiu Lin2, Xiongwei Zheng1, Feng Peng2* and Wenquan Niu3* 1Department of Pathology, Fujian Cancer Hospital &Fujian Medical University Cancer Hospital, Fuzhou, China 2Department of Cardiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, China 3Institute of Clinical Medical Sciences, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing, China Background and Objectives: Growing evidence indicates that metabolic syndrome confers a differential risk for the development and progression of many types of cancer, especially in the digestive tr...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Conclusion The expression of the components of the PTN-MK-RPTPβ/ζ axis in immune cells and in inflammatory diseases suggests important roles for this axis in inflammation. Pleiotrophin has been recently identified as a limiting factor of metainflammation, a chronic pathological state that contributes to neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Pleiotrophin also seems to potentiate acute neuroinflammation independently of the inflammatory stimulus while MK seems to play different -even opposite- roles in acute neuroinflammation depending on the stimulus. Which are the functions of MK and PTN in chronic neuroinfla...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Authors: Cardona Attard C, Fava S Abstract Adult-onset hypogonadism is used to define androgen deficiency and its associated symptoms commonly occurring in middle-aged and elderly men, who are unable to mount an adequate compensatory gonadotropin response but may also have an element of testicular failure. It often occurs in relation with chronic metabolic conditions such as diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. There is a growing demand from elderly men for testosterone therapy. The physician should therefore be well-informed so as the patient can make an informed decision. Indeed, testosterone therapy in older men...
Source: Minerva Urologica e Nefrologica - Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: Minerva Urol Nefrol Source Type: research
In the present cross-sectional study, based on National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, 2007–2010) cohorts, various risk factors for metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) were analyzed (n=12,153). The variables analyzed include, demographics, comorbidities associated with MetS or CVD, behavioral and dietary factors, while the primary endpoints were the prevalence of MetS and CVD. The prevalence of MetS and CVD was slightly higher in males as compared with females (42.50% and 7.65% vs 41.29% and 4.13%, respectively). After controlling for confounding factors, advanced age, famil...
Source: Journal of Investigative Medicine - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Preventive Medicine Source Type: research
Abstract Androgen deprivation therapy continues to be widely used for the treatment of prostate cancer despite the appearance of new‐generation androgen‐receptor targeting drugs after 2000. Androgen deprivation therapy can alleviate symptoms in patients with metastatic prostate cancer and might have a survival benefit in some patients, but it causes undesirable changes in lipid, glucose, muscle or bone metabolism. These metabolic changes could lead to new onset or worsening of diseases, such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, sarcopenia or fracture. Several studies examining the ...
Source: International Journal of Urology - Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Tags: Review Article Source Type: research
Authors: Tzortzis V, Samarinas M, Zachos I, Oeconomou A, Pisters LL, Bargiota A Abstract Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is the most effective treatment for this disease. The cornerstone of the treatment of prostate cancer is inhibition of testosterone production which interrupts testosterone-induced growth of the prostate tumor. The dramatic decrease in testosterone levels, however, has several undesirable effects on the metabolic profile and bone metabolism and can also lead to fatigue, loss of libido, gynecomastia, and anemia, provoke vasomotor flushing,...
Source: Hormones - Category: Endocrinology Tags: Hormones (Athens) Source Type: research
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