Immunotherapy in nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer: current and emerging treatments

Purpose of review There is a significant unmet need for efficacious second-line treatment options for patients who have failed bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) therapy for nonmuscle invasive urothelial carcinoma (NMIBC). Recent advances in our understanding of systemic immunotherapy have transformed the management of advanced urothelial carcinoma and have led to the development of multiple novel agents. Using this insight, these agents are now being investigated for use in NMIBC. Recent findings Although BCG has been used to treat high-risk NMIBC for decades, new applications of immunotherapy include the use of exogenous cytokines to boost immune response, vaccines to activate the immune system against specific tumor-associated antigens, intravesical agents that cause generalized local inflammation, and targeted antibodies against proteins on the surface of immune checkpoint inhibitors. Although most of these agents are still being investigated in clinical trials and are not yet considered standard of care, they hold significant promise in the treatment of patients with high-risk NMIBC. Summary The use of immunotherapy has significantly improved survival outcomes in advanced urothelial carcinoma. Based on rapid advances in our understanding of the immune system and tumor biology, these agents are also poised to alter the therapeutic landscape for NMIBC dramatically as clinical trials are completed.
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: GENITOURINARY SYSTEM: Edited by Arif Hussain Source Type: research

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This review focuses on what is the biological basis of esophageal cancer for immunotherapy, how to screen out the patients who can benefit from immunotherapy, and whether the toxic side effects of immunotherapy are manageable. AbstractConsidering the benefits of immunotherapy in advanced melanoma, non –small cell lung cancer, renal cell carcinoma, bladder cancers, and refractory Hodgkin lymphoma, we begin to consider whether immunotherapy is effective for esophageal cancer, which is extremely malignant and has a poor prognosis. There are a large number of clinical trials to study the applicatio n of immunotherapy suc...
Source: Cancer Medicine - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: REVIEW Source Type: research
Michal Yalon1†, Amos Toren1,2†, Dina Jabarin2, Edna Fadida3, Shlomi Constantini3 and Ruty Mehrian-Shai1* 1Pediatric Hemato-Oncology, Edmond and Lilly Safra Children's Hospital and Cancer Research Center, Sheba Medical Center, Ramat Gan, Israel 2The Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel 3Department of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Dana Children's Hospital, Tel-Aviv-Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel Pediatric brain tumors are the most common solid tumor type and the leading cause of cancer-related death in children. The immune system plays an important r...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
In this study, T cells deficient in TRAF6 display enhanced T cell activation, CD28-indpendent stimulation and resistance to Treg cell-mediated suppression (176). Although TLR signaling can promote T cell resistance to Treg cells, the precise molecular mechanism remains yet to be elucidated. It is worth noting that TLR stimulation of T cells increases cytokine production (173, 177), thus future studies should delineate the effect of TLR-MyD88 signaling vs. subsequently induced cytokines in generating resistance to Treg cells. Lastly, it is also crucial to evaluate the effect of TLR signaling on regulatory T cells which also...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
In this study, the immunohistochemistry results demonstrated that DEPDC1 was high-expressed in breast cancer tissues compared with the paired adjacent normal breast tissues, and its tendency at protein level was consistent with mRNA level from TCGA data. Moreover, DEPDC1 mRNA level revealed the strongest association with poor prognosis and development in breast cancer. In vitro assays showed that DEPDC1 overexpression resulted in significant promotion of proliferation by regulating cell cycle in MCF-7 cells, whilst an opposite effect was found in the MDA-MB-231 cells with DEPDC1 deletion. Notably, further investigation ind...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Authors: Mora Román JJ, Del Campo M, Villar J, Paolini F, Curzio G, Venuti A, Jara L, Ferreira J, Murgas P, Lladser A, Manubens A, Becker MI Abstract Mollusk hemocyanins have been used for decades in immunological and clinical applications as natural, nontoxic, nonpathogenic, and nonspecific immunostimulants for the treatment of superficial bladder cancer, as carriers/adjuvants of tumor-associated antigens in cancer vaccine development and as adjuvants to dendritic cell-based immunotherapy, because these glycoproteins induce a bias towards Th1 immunity. Here, we analyzed the preclinical therapeutic potential...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research
Fight Aging! provides a weekly digest of news and commentary for thousands of subscribers interested in the latest longevity science: progress towards the medical control of aging in order to prevent age-related frailty, suffering, and disease, as well as improvements in the present understanding of what works and what doesn't work when it comes to extending healthy life. Expect to see summaries of recent advances in medical research, news from the scientific community, advocacy and fundraising initiatives to help speed work on the repair and reversal of aging, links to online resources, and much more. This content is...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
In this study, we introduce novel TLR 7/8 bi-specific agonists that significantly enhance cytokine secretion compared to TLR7 mono-selective compounds. Encapsulation of these TLR 7/8 agonists in poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles increased the co-stimulatory molecule expression and antigen presentation via MHC I by DCs compared to the soluble agonist. When administered subcutaneously, these nanoparticles migrated to draining lymph node and triggered DC activation and expansion. This lead to expansion of antigen-specific CD8 T cells and enhanced CTL response, which resulted in significant prophylactic and thera...
Source: Biomaterials - Category: Materials Science Authors: Tags: Biomaterials Source Type: research
Authors: Chism DD Abstract With the advent of platinum-based chemotherapy, survival rates for metastatic urothelial carcinoma have plateaued, giving way to the modern immunotherapy paradigm. Although immunotherapy as an effective treatment dates back to the live, attenuated bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine, the recent impact of immune checkpoint inhibitors targeting programmed death/programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) coupled with the promise of both anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) antibodies and indoleamine-2, 3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO-1) inhibitors have provided a resurgence. To dat...
Source: Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network : JNCCN - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Natl Compr Canc Netw Source Type: research
Purpose of review: Active investigation suggests immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy and therapeutic cancer vaccines provide clinical benefit for genitourinary malignancies including prostate cancer, renal cell carcinoma, and bladder cancer. Recent developments in the utility of immune checkpoint inhibitor and vaccine therapy for the management of genitourinary malignancies are highlighted in this review. Recent findings: Dramatic responses to checkpoint inhibitor therapy have been demonstrated in renal cell carcinoma and bladder cancer with recent Food and Drug Administration approvals in both indications. No benefit to ...
Source: Current Opinion in Urology - Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: CANCER IMMUNOTHERAPY: NEW APPLICATIONS IN UROLOGIC ONCOLOGY: Edited by Maria De Santis and Matthew D. Galsky Source Type: research
Immunotherapy has long played a role in urothelial cancers with the use of bacille Calmette Guérin (BCG) being a mainstay in the treatment of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer. Novel therapeutic approaches have not significantly impacted mortality in this population and so a renaissance in immunotherapy has resulted. This includes recombinant BCG, oncolytic viruses, monoclonal antibodies, vaccines, and adoptive T-cell therapy. Herein, we provide a review of the current state of the art and future therapies regarding immunotherapeutic strategies for urothelial carcinoma.
Source: Therapeutic Advances in Urology - Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Tags: Reviews Source Type: research
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