The emergence of long-term survivors in recurrent and metastatic squamous cell head and neck cancer

Purpose of review The systemic therapies available in recurrent and metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma to date are palliative-intent treatments in most cases. However, a small subgroup of patients derives unconventional benefit and become long-term survivors, achieving cure in some cases. This review focusses on this group of patients, discusses recent literature and suggests plausible molecular hypothesis. Recent findings Human papillomavirus-related disease is known to confer a better prognosis in metastatic patients, probably because of its greater sensitivity to systemic therapies. This group of patients seems to have a greater immune activation, which could partly explain this fact. Moreover, the use of antiepidermal growth factor receptor therapies in the metastatic setting has doubled the prevalence of long-term survivors. One of the most plausible explanations is the immune-modulatory effect of cetuximab mediated by antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. These facts, along with the recent encouraging results of checkpoint inhibitors in this disease, give hope that these therapies will not only improve survival but also increase the prevalence of long-term survivors. Summary Long-term survivors merit our utmost attention as an in-depth study of these patients could help us to better understand the tumour biology and allow us to develop robust biomarkers and effective targeted therapies, which could in turn lead to a true paradigm shift.
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: HEAD AND NECK: Edited by Joël Guigay Source Type: research

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In conclusion, HPV-DNA prevalence was significantly lower in our HNSCC patients than worldwide 32–36% estimates (p ≤ 0.001). Although infrequent, oropharyngeal cancer increased over years and showed 21% HPV-DNA positivity, which is close to the worldwide 36–46% estimates (p = 0.16). Besides age, smoking, tumor stage, and treatment, HPV/p16 status was an important determinant of patients’ survival. The HPV and/or p16 positivity patients had a better OS than HPV/p16 double-negative patients (p = 0.05). Thus, HPV/p16 status helps improve prognosis by distinguishing between the more favorab...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Abstract Human papillomavirus (HPV) is an etiologic factor in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). HPV(+) cancers respond favorably to therapy potentially due to more robust anti-tumor immune responses. We hypothesized that tumor-derived exosomes (TEX) produced by HPV(+) or HPV(-) HNSCCs differentially modulate anti-tumor immune responses. Proteomes of exosomes from HPV(+) and HPV(-) HNSCC cell lines were compared in search for proteins putatively involved in the communication with immune system. TEX were isolated from supernatants of HPV(+) (SCC-2, SCC-47, and SCC-90) or HPV(-) (PCI-13 and PCI-30) cells...
Source: Genomics Proteomics ... - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Oncoimmunology Source Type: research
Authors: Aboagye E, Agyemang-Yeboah F, Duduyemi BM, Obirikorang C Abstract Fewer studies have been done over the years to establish the association of human papillomavirus (HPV) with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSSC) within the subregions of sub-Saharan Africa, and thus this study was designed to investigate the presence of HPV in HNSCC at a tertiary hospital in Ghana, providing additional evidence on the need to explore similar studies in other subregions. A retrospective cross-sectional study was employed to investigate the presence of the DNA of HPV genotypes in HNSCC archived tissue. A total of 100 ...
Source: The Scientific World Journal - Category: Science Tags: ScientificWorldJournal Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 2 May 2019Source: Microbial PathogenesisAuthor(s): Mushfiq H. Shaikh, Vuk Bortnik, Nigel AJ. McMillan, Adi IdrisAbstractHead and neck cancers (HNCs) are a major health problem and a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. More than 90% of these tumours are head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs). Amongst the common risk factors for HNCs (tobacco and alcohol use), there is a strong association of human papillomavirus (HPV) with HNSCCs. HPV type 16 (HPV 16), the major high-risk HPV type, is most commonly associated with HPV-driven HNSCCs. The promiscuous nature of the ma...
Source: Microbial Pathogenesis - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Santosh K. Ghosh1*, Thomas S. McCormick1,2 and Aaron Weinberg1* 1Biological Sciences, School of Dental Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, United States 2Dermatology, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, United States Human beta-defensins (hBDs, −1, 2, 3) are a family of epithelial cell derived antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) that protect mucosal membranes from microbial challenges. In addition to their antimicrobial activities, they possess other functions; e.g., cell activation, proliferation, regulation of cytokine/chemokine production, migration, diffe...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
The objective of this review article is to discuss the current role of surgery as the primary treatment modality in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Recent findings HNSCC represents one of the cancer locations where the primary treatment modality is the most under discussion. Indeed, the respective roles of primary surgical resection followed, as necessary, by adjuvant radiotherapy or definitive chemoradiotherapy remain controversial. The results of organ preservation trials and the drastic rise in the incidence of human papillomavirus-induced oropharyngeal tumors, which are known to be highl...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: HEAD AND NECK: Edited by Joël Guigay Source Type: research
Opinion statementThe epidemiology of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) has shifted dramatically over the last 50  years, as smoking-related HNSCCs decrease in incidence while human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers rise. The shift in HNSCC risk factors has changed patient demographics, the distribution of affected anatomical subsites, and prognosis of this illness. As such, the medical community has respon ded by devising novel staging systems and prevention strategies. The medical community will require continued vigilance in reducing HNSCC traditional risks factors for HNSCC, such as cigarette use, an...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Conclusions In the span of a very short time—less than a decade—robotic head and neck surgery has transformed the management of the head and neck cancer, and it seems clear that the future of treatment for these cancers lies in a multimodal approach in which TORS is likely to play an important role. Nevertheless, it is important to keep in mind that the current indications for TORS are limited and long-term data on the safety and oncological outcomes are needed to better understand the true role of TORS in treatment of head and neck cancer. Nonetheless, the emergence of ever more advanced robotic instruments i...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Conclusion Most head and neck pathologies show a broad cellular heterogeneity making it difficult to achieve an accurate diagnosis and efficient treatment (Graf and Zavodszky, 2017; Lo Nigro et al., 2017). Single cell analysis of circadian omics (Lande-Diner et al., 2015; Abraham et al., 2018), may be a crucial tool needed in the future to fully understand the circadian control of head and neck diseases. It becomes more obvious that there is only a small genetic component but a largely unknown epigenetics and/or environmental component for most of the head and neck pathologies (Moosavi and Motevalizadeh Ardekani, 2016; He...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
In conclusion, we describe several SNPs associated with HNC in a Spanish population.
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
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