A gathering storm: HIV infection and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in low and middle-income countries

Despite the decreasing total incidence of liver-related deaths, liver disease remains one of the major non-AIDS causes of morbidity and mortality amongst people living with HIV, and a significant proportion of liver disease in these individuals can be attributed to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD in HIV infection is a growing problem in view of increasing life expectancy associated with the use of effective antiretroviral therapy (ART), wider uptake of ART and increasing rates of obesity in many Asian as well as western countries. The problem may be more pronounced in developing countries where there are limited resources available for mass screening and diagnosis of NAFLD. There is a small but growing body of literature examining NAFLD in the setting of HIV, with data from low and middle-income countries (LMICs) particularly lacking. Here, we review the cohort data on NAFLD in HIV, and discuss the risk factors, pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis, NAFLD and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), diagnostic approaches and therapeutic options available for NAFLD in the setting of HIV, and the specific challenges of NAFLD in HIV for LMICs.
Source: AIDS - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: EDITORIAL REVIEW Source Type: research

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Conclusions: the prevalence found was higher than that of other national researches, especially for the female gender. In the male gender, not having internet access, a lesser number of family members and a longer screen time proved to be factors associated with being excess weight.Resumo Objetivos: investigar a preval ência de excesso de peso e fatores associados entre adolescentes de uma comunidade de baixa renda situada na cidade do Recife, Pernambuco. Métodos: estudo transversal, em que foram coletadas informações demográficas, socioeconômicas e comportamentais no período ...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Saude Materno Infantil - Category: Midwifery Source Type: research
Conclusion: The present study indicates a downward secular trend in the menarcheal age of the Saudi population. Moreover, a negative correlation between BMI and menarcheal age was also documented. PMID: 31522226 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Saudi Medical Journal - Category: Middle East Health Tags: Saudi Med J Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 16 September 2019Source: The American Journal of SurgeryAuthor(s): Minyoung Kwak, J. Hunter Mehaffey, Robert B. Hawkins, Angel Hsu, Bruce Schirmer, Peter T. HallowellAbstractIntroductionObesity is a risk factor for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Bariatric surgery can provide durable weight-loss, but little is known about the later development of NASH and HCC after surgery.MethodsBariatric surgery (n=3,410) and obese controls (n=46,873) from an institutional data repository were propensity score matched 1:1 by demographics, comorbidities, BMI, and ...
Source: The American Journal of Surgery - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
Conclusions: The lipidome is altered in ART-treated HIV infection, and may contribute to inflammation and CVD progression. Detailed lipidomic analyses may better assess CVD risk in both HIV+ and HIV– individuals than does traditional lipid profiling. Introduction Both HIV infection and the use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) contribute to an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) (1, 2). Dyslipidemia is observed in HIV-infected (HIV+) individuals, and is associated with reduced levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and elevated total (TC) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) chole...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
This study was carried out in strict accordance with recommendations of the National Institutes of Health guide for the care and use of Laboratory animals. Before undergoing the experimental work, the protocol was approved by the Comité Institutionnel de Protection des Animaux (CIPA) of UQAM (Permit Number: 0515-R3–759-0516). After a 3-day acclimatization period at UQAM’s animal facility, young (100–125 g; approximately 4 weeks old) male Wistar rats (Charles River, St-Constant, QC, Canada) were randomly fed with a regular chow diet (RCD; n = 13) or HFD (n = 12) for 14&...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
Background: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is common among people living with HIV. There are limited data available on the pathophysiology of NAFLD and the development of fibrosis in this population. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the association of bacterial translocation, adipose tissue dysfunction, monocyte activation and gut dysbiosis in patients with HIV monoinfection and NAFLD. Methods: Cases with biopsy-proven NAFLD and HIV monoinfection were age and sex-matched to HIV-positive and HIV-negative controls. Markers of bacterial translocation [lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (L...
Source: AIDS - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: BASIC SCIENCE Source Type: research
Authors: Perazzo H, Cardoso SW, Yanavich C, Nunes EP, Morata M, Gorni N, da Silva PS, Cardoso C, Almeida C, Luz P, Veloso VG, Grinsztejn B Abstract INTRODUCTION: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is characterized by the presence of hepatic steatosis and can be associated with fibrosis progression, development of cirrhosis and liver-related complications. Data on the prevalence of liver fibrosis and steatosis in HIV patients remain contradictory in resource-limited settings. We aimed to describe the prevalence and factors associated with liver fibrosis and steatosis in patients with HIV mono-infection under long-ter...
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research
Abstract Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is highly prevalent in patients with HIV infection and appears to be more severe than in HIV-uninfected patients. Both metabolic (e.g., obesity and insulin resistance) and HIV-related factors (e.g., antiretroviral treatment and inflammation) play a role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD in this population. Accordingly, all patients with HIV infection should be evaluated for the presence of NAFLD. Ultrasound is the first-line diagnostic procedure, but non-alcoholic steatohepatitis has to be diagnosed with liver biopsy. However, non-invasive methods, including serologica...
Source: AIDS Reviews - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research
Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease have become a common finding in HIV-infected patients. However, the severity, risk factors and pathogenesis of liver fibrosis in this population have been poorly documented. Objectives: To assess the impact of MetS on liver fibrosis and analyze the association between MetS, liver fibrosis and markers of adipose tissue and macrophage activation. Methods: In a matched cohort of HIV-1-monoinfected patients with and without MetS, after exclusion of other causes of liver disease, we assessed liver stiffness measurement and measured levels of serum adip...
Source: AIDS - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Clinical Science Source Type: research
Conclusion: Exposure to a xenobiotic during early development induced persistent fat accumulation via hypomethylation of lipogenic genes. Moreover, increased Nrf2 recruitment to the Srebp-1c promoter in livers of BPA-exposed mice was observed. Overall, the underlying mechanisms described a broader impact beyond BPA exposure and can be applied to understand other models of NAFLD. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP664 Received: 15 June 2016 Revised: 28 January 2017 Accepted: 31 January 2017 Published: 04 August 2017 Address correspondence to A.L. Slitt, Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Rhode Island, 7 Gre...
Source: EHP Research - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
More News: Eating Disorders & Weight Management | Fatty Liver Disease (FLD) | HIV AIDS | Infectious Diseases | Liver | Liver Disease | Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Diseases (NAFLD) | Obesity | Urology & Nephrology