Human Beta Defensins and Cancer: Contradictions and Common Ground

Human Beta Defensins and Cancer: Contradictions and Common Ground Santosh K. Ghosh1*, Thomas S. McCormick1,2 and Aaron Weinberg1* 1Biological Sciences, School of Dental Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, United States 2Dermatology, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, United States Human beta-defensins (hBDs, −1, 2, 3) are a family of epithelial cell derived antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) that protect mucosal membranes from microbial challenges. In addition to their antimicrobial activities, they possess other functions; e.g., cell activation, proliferation, regulation of cytokine/chemokine production, migration, differentiation, angiogenesis, and wound healing processes. It has also become apparent that defensin levels change with the development of neoplasia. However, inconsistent observations published by various laboratories make it difficult to reach a consensus as to the direction of the dysregulation and role the hBDs may play in various cancers. This is particularly evident in studies focusing on oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). By segregating each hBD by cancer type, interrogating methodologies, and scrutinizing the subject cohorts used in the studies, we have endeavored to identify the “take home message” for each one of the three hBDs. We discovered that (1) consensus-driven findings indicate that hBD-1 and−2 are down- while hBD-3 is up-regulated in OSCC; (2) hBD dysregulatio...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

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Source: Molecular Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 14 June 2019Source: Stem Cell ResearchAuthor(s): Nupur Bhargava, Shashank Jaitly, Sangam Giri Goswami, Suman Jain, Debojyoti Chakraborty, Sivaprakash RamalingamAbstractSickle cell disease (SCD) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by a mutation in β-globin (HBB) gene. We have generated an induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) line, IGIBi001-A from an Indian sickle cell patient with a homozygous HBB gene mutation using Sendai virus reprogramming system. Characterization of IGIBi001-A showed that these iPSCs are transgene-free and expressed pluripotent stem cell markers. They had a...
Source: Stem Cell Research - Category: Stem Cells Source Type: research
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Source: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine - Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research
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Source: Nano Today - Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research
Publication date: 2019Source: Materials Today: Proceedings, Volume 15, Part 2Author(s): Manohara Dhulappa Jalageri, Yashoda Malgar Puttaiahgowda, HariprasadAbstractEco-friendly technique was adopted for the preparation of piperazine polymer nanocomposites is developed via green synthetic route in one-pot approach. The structure and properties of polymer nanocomposite were confirmed by using UV-Visible spectroscopy, XRD and SEM. The synthesized piperazine nanocomposite showed very good antimicrobial activity against gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli (5.0-11.6 mm diameter) and gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aure...
Source: Materials Today: Proceedings - Category: Materials Science Source Type: research
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Source: Materials Science and Engineering: C - Category: Materials Science Source Type: research
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Source: Clinica Chimica Acta - Category: Laboratory Medicine Source Type: research
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Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research
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Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research
This study demonstrates that NSCLC cells resistant to gefitinib (GR cells) displayed a significantly higher microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1) expression and activity than parental cells. Overexpression of mPGES-1/prostaglandin E-2 (PGE-2) signaling in GR cells was associated with acquisition of mesenchymal and stem-like cell properties, nuclear EGFR translocation and tolerance to cisplatin. mPGES-1 inhibition reduced mesenchymal and stem-like properties, and nuclear EGFR translocation in GR cells. Consistently, inhibition of mPGES-1 activity enhanced sensitivity to cisplatin and responsiveness to gefitinib in...
Source: Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators - Category: Lipidology Source Type: research
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