Animal models of mucositis: critical tools for advancing pathobiological understanding and identifying therapeutic targets

Purpose of review Mucositis remains a prevalent, yet poorly managed side effect of anticancer therapies. Mucositis affecting both the oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract predispose to infection and require extensive supportive management, contributing to the growing economic burden associated with cancer care. Animal models remain a critical aspect of mucositis research, providing novel insights into its pathogenesis and revealing therapeutic targets. The current review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the current animal models used in mucositis research. Recent findings A wide variety of animal models of mucositis exist highlighting the highly heterogenous landscape of supportive oncology and the unique cytotoxic mechanisms of different anticancer agents. Golden Syrian hamsters remain the gold-standard species for investigation of oral mucositis induced by single dose and fractionated radiation as well as chemoradiation. There is no universally accepted gold-standard model for the study of gastrointestinal mucositis, with rats, mice, pigs and dogs all offering unique perspectives on its pathobiology. Summary Animal models are a critical aspect of mucositis research, providing unprecedent insight into the pathobiology of mucositis. Introduction of tumour-bearing models, cyclic dosing scheduled, concomitant agents and genetically modified animals have been integral in refining our understanding of mucositis.
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - Category: Palliative Care Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL SYMPTOMS: Edited by Nicole Blijlevens and Andrea M. Stringer Source Type: research

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Conclusion: Majority of visits to ED could have been avoided with better counseling of the patients and their attendants.
Source: Indian Journal of Palliative Care - Category: Palliative Care Authors: Source Type: research
ConclusionsThis is the first large-scale study of 30-day mortality for unselected adult palliative RT in Hong Kong. A balance needs to be achieved between duration of RT course and potential benefits through appropriate patient selection. The observed differences in early mortality by fractionation support the use of this measure in assessing clinical decision making in palliative RT, and further studies in other centres and health care systems are required.Legal entity responsible for the studyShing Fung Lee.FundingHas not received any funding.DisclosureAll authors have declared no conflicts of interest.
Source: Annals of Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Conclusions: The improvement in QOL parameters suggests that the regimen of 52.5 Gy in 15 fractions is suitable for palliative intent radiotherapy in late-stage oral cavity cancer for effective palliation for short periods.
Source: Indian Journal of Palliative Care - Category: Palliative Care Authors: Source Type: research
Conclusions18F-FDG PET/CT reclassification was higher than 10% in almost all categories studied (cTNM, tumor extension and nodal disease) and detects more metastases and synchronous tumors than conventional studies, which has an impact on the therapeutic patient management and RT planning.ResumenObjetivosInvestigar el uso de la 18F-FDG(flúor-18 fluorodesoxiglucosa) PET/TC en la estadificación del cáncer de cabeza y cuello (CCC) y su repercusión en la decisión terapéutica y planificación de tratamiento radioterápico.Material y métodosSe incluyen 100 pacientes co...
Source: Revista Espanola de Medicina Nuclear e Imagen Molecular - Category: Nuclear Medicine Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 2 November 2018Source: Journal of Cancer PolicyAuthor(s): Sanjeeva Gunasekera, Sanjeewa Seneviratne, Thiw.a Wijeratne, Christopher M. BoothAbstractSri Lanka, a small island nation in South Asia, is in the process of transition from a low-middle to an upper middle income country. With these changes, the burden of non-communicable disease has increased significantly. Cancer incidence has nearly doubled in twenty-five years. The pattern of cancer is also changing with breast, lung and colorectal cancers showing marked increased incidence compared to traditionally common cancers of the oral c...
Source: Journal of Cancer Policy - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Conclusion: Systemic treatment with Ivermectin, Albendazole and Clindamycin (Triple Therapy) enhances the removal of maggots, early recovery and relief from distress and associated symptoms.
Source: Indian Journal of Palliative Care - Category: Palliative Care Authors: Source Type: research
This study was conducted with the aim of evaluating a 10-year experience in the Pulmonology Department of a cancer center for percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy through transnasal route (TN-PEG) in patients with head and neck cancer whose oral access is precluded. This study was a retrospective analysis of 40 consecutive head and neck cancer patients referred for PEG placement, between 2005 and 2014, using a transnasal route because of the impossibility of intubation through the oral cavity. Demographics, outcome of TN-PEG procedure, indications for bronchoscopic approach (prophylactic/palliative), clinical need for bronc...
Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology - Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Brief Report Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Oral metronomic chemotherapy has promising results when used in a selected cohort of patients but has dismal results in patients who failed within 6 months of previous treatment.
Source: Indian Journal of Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Source Type: research
Conclusion: This study suggested that surgery must be the mainstay of treatment in locally advanced stage SCCOC. Palliative RT/CT still offered long term survival in some SCCOC patients. PMID: 28749621 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Asian Pac J Cancer Prev Source Type: research
We present a rare case of MPNST of the tongue who presented with features of hypoglossal nerve palsy. Incisional biopsy showed a malignant spindle cell tumor in the sub-epithelial connective tissue. The tumor cells were immune-positive for S-100. He underwent surgery followed by adjuvant chemo-radiation. Later the disease recurred in the form of isolated pelvic bone metastasis. Palliative chemotherapy was offered to him. With this case report we intend to refer to such unusual presentation and pattern of recurrence in a MPNST of tongue.
Source: Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
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