Sex Difference of Radiation Response in Occupational and Accidental Exposure

In this study, we reviewed major human studies on the health risks of radiation exposure and showed that sex-related factors may potentially influence the long-term response to radiation exposure. Available data suggest that long-term radiosensitivity in women is higher than that in men who receive a comparable dose of radiation. The report on the biological effects of ionizing radiation (BEIR VII) published in 2006 by the National Academy of Sciences, United States emphasized that women may be at significantly greater risk of suffering and dying from radiation-induced cancer than men exposed to the same dose of radiation. We show that radiation effects are sex-specific, and long-term radiosensitivity in females is higher than that in males. We also discuss the radiation effects as a function of age. In the future, more systematic studies are needed to elucidate the sex differences in radiation responses across the life continuum – from preconception through childhood, adulthood, and old age – to ensure that boys and girls and men and women are equally protected across ages. Introduction Since Henri Becquerel’s discovery of radioactivity in 1896, ionizing radiations (IRs) have been recognized to cause deleterious effects on human health (International Agency for Research on Cancer [IARC], 2000). The effects of IR exposure are dose- and dose-rate-dependent. IR exposures result in two types of health issues: deterministic and stochastic (Blakely, 2000)...
Source: Frontiers in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

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Authors: Kallam A, Armitage JO Abstract INTRODUCTION: T cell lymphomas are a heterogeneous group, with varying incidences, geographic patterns, and risk factors. Although until recently approached in a manner similar to B cell lymphomas, the treatment outcomes are poor and this disease is characterized by high relapse rates. The treatment advances in PTCL have been slow compared to B cell lymphomas. The outcomes of patients who progress following stem cell transplantation are worse. AREAS COVERED: This review focuses on the novel targeted agents that are approved and/or are under investigation for patients with...
Source: Expert Review of Hematology - Category: Hematology Tags: Expert Rev Hematol Source Type: research
Conclusions: Results from a head-to-head study showed that, compared with secukinumab, guselkumab had lower NNTs and CPRs for PASI 75, PASI 90, and PASI 100 responses. PMID: 32479140 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Journal of Dermatological Treatment - Category: Dermatology Tags: J Dermatolog Treat Source Type: research
Authors: Perez BA, Slover J, Edusei E, Horan A, Anoushiravani A, Kamath AF, Nelson CL Abstract BACKGROUND: Total joint arthroplasty is one of the most common surgeries performed in the United States with total knee arthroplasty (TKA) being one of the most successful surgeries for restoring function and diminishing pain. Even with the demonstrated success of TKA and a higher prevalence of arthritis and arthritis related disability among minorities, racial and gender disparity remains a constant issue in providing care for the adult reconstruction patient. AIM: To assess the role of demographics and expectations ...
Source: World Journal of Orthopaedics - Category: Orthopaedics Tags: World J Orthop Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 1 June 2020Source: MethodsAuthor(s): Reyhaneh Manafi-Farid, Najme Karamzade-Ziarati, Reza Vali, Felix M. Mottaghy, Mohsen Beheshti
Source: Methods - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 2 June 2020Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Cell ResearchAuthor(s): Dipanwita Das Mukherjee, N. Maruthi Kumar, Mukund P. Tantak, Satabdi Datta, Debabrata Ghosh Dastidar, Dalip Kumar, Gopal Chakrabarti
Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) Molecular Cell Research - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
Authors: Barber MRW, Clarke AE Abstract INTRODUCTION: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disorder that affects almost every organ system and it is treated with immunomodulation and immunosuppression. SLE patients have an intrinsically dysfunctional immune system which is exacerbated by disease activity and leaves them vulnerable to infection. Treatment with immunosuppression increases susceptibility to infection, while hydroxychloroquine use decreases this risk. Infectious diseases are a leading cause of hospitalization and death. AREAS COVERED: This narrative review provides an overview of rec...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research
In this study, we reported clinical, immunologic, and genetic evaluation of two Iranian patients from unrelated families, both suffering from recurrent respiratory tract infections, failure to thrive, interstitial lung disease, autoimmune cytopenia, and hypogammaglobulinemia. Pulmonary abscess in one patient and persistent enteropathy in another were also observed. Further investigations revealed causative mutations in the exon (c.2166_2766del) and intron (c.4730-3 T > G) of the LRBA gene. These results may provide further elucidation of the clinical phenotypes and responsible genetic factors of LRBA defi...
Source: Immunological Investigations - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Immunol Invest Source Type: research
Children and adults with Philadelphia chromosome–like B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph-like B-ALL) experience high relapse rates despite best-available conventional chemotherapy. Ph-like ALL is driven by genetic alterations that activate constitutive cytokine receptor and kinase signaling, and early-phase trials are investigating the potential of the addition of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) to chemotherapy to improve clinical outcomes. However, preclinical studies have shown that JAK or PI3K pathway inhibition is insufficient to eradicate the most common cytokine receptor–like factor 2–rearran...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
Th17 cells (producing IL-17) and Th9 cells (producing IL-9) exhibit functional plasticity, and their role in tumorigenicity is controversial. Th17/IL-17 and Th9/IL-9 exhibit critical, but often opposing, roles in tumor progression. In this issue of the JCI, Salazar et al. show that while IL-17 and IL-9 induced distinct but complementary molecular pathways, both cytokines also induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in lung cancer cells and promoted metastatic spreading. A key question before us now is whether IL-9 and IL-17 contribute to tumor progression in a sequential and stage-specific manner within the tumor microenvironment.
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
The baroreceptor reflex is a powerful neural feedback that regulates arterial pressure (AP). Mechanosensitive channels transduce pulsatile AP to electrical signals in baroreceptors. Here we show that tentonin 3 (TTN3/TMEM150C), a cation channel activated by mechanical strokes, is essential for detecting AP changes in the aortic arch. TTN3 was expressed in nerve terminals in the aortic arch and nodose ganglion (NG) neurons. Genetic ablation of Ttn3 induced ambient hypertension, tachycardia, AP fluctuations, and impaired baroreflex sensitivity. Chemogenetic silencing or activation of Ttn3+ neurons in the NG resulted in an in...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
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