Modeling Streptococcus pyogenes Pharyngeal Colonization in the Mouse

In conclusion, the mouse pharyngeal colonization model is an affordable and accessible experimental system that allows a broader group of research groups to test the importance of their findings in an in vivo model. There is a great deal of overlap between the bacterial and immune factors found to be important in human and murine pharyngeal colonization. Although MHC-II humanized mice could prove useful in answering certain questions, the use of inbred mouse lines appears to be sufficient for evaluation of most questions, both related to bacterial factors and the host immune response. However, when promising treatments or vaccines against GAS are identified, non-human primate models remain the gold standard and should be utilized to validate all results. Author Contributions AG conducted most of the literature review and initial writing of the text. MF edited and contributed to the expansion of several sections of the review. Funding This work was supported by NIH NIAID 2R01 AI091779-06 (Federle-PI) and NIAID 1F30 AI136359-01A1 (Gogos-PI). Conflict of Interest Statement The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Acknowledgments We would like to thank Kate Rahbari, Britta Rued, and Jennifer Chang for reading through the text and providing valuable comments and suggestions. References Alam, F. M., Turner, C. E., Smith, K., Wiles, S., and...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

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CONCLUSION: An exclusively extranodal manifestation of cHL in Waldeyer's ring is rare, whereas infiltration of extranodal tissue in the case of a primary manifestation of lymphoma in cervical nodes can occur more frequently and may often remain undiagnosed. Therefore, a specialized ENT consultation could be a reasonable complementary module in tumor staging to determine the correct tumor extent. PMID: 31712877 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: HNO - Category: ENT & OMF Tags: HNO Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 13 November 2019Source: Veterinary MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Linlin Li, Yun Zhang, Jiawen Dong, Junqing Zhang, Chunhong Zhang, Minhua Sun, Yongchang CaoAbstractDuck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) is a major pathogen of duck industry in China. In the current study, we generated different constructs containing envelope (E) protein, pre-membrane-envelope (prM-E) protein, and C-terminally truncated E protein of the DTMUV. The constructed proteins could induce specific antibody responses in young ducks. When ducklings were immunized with the constructed proteins, they were 100% protected against DTMUV inf...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 12 November 2019Source: Veterinary MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Sahar Rostami, Jalil Mehrzad, Ramak Yahyaraeyat, Taghi Zahraei SalehiAbstractSalmonella enterica Subsp enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium, ST) is one of the most important serovars of the genus Salmonella in human and animals. Because of its intracellular tropism, monocytes/macrophages are pivotal in killing of Salmonella serovars; they are also responsible for transporting of ST to extra-intestinal organs. To investigate the effect of the ST on the functions of avian innate immune cells, almost homogeneous enriched monoc...
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CONCLUSIONS: Veterans eligible for VA servicers who are homeless, or at risk of becoming homeless, frequently sought care in the community for a variety of chronic health conditions. Health information exchanges and partner-based registries may represent an important tool for identifying vulnerable Veteran populations while reducing duplication of care. PMID: 31714995 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Military Medicine - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Mil Med Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: The present findings suggest that the serum sdLDL cholesterol level is a relevant biomarker for the future development of CHD that offers benefit beyond the serum LDL cholesterol level and a possible therapeutic target to reduce the burden of CHD in a Japanese community. PMID: 31708527 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis - Category: Cardiology Tags: J Atheroscler Thromb Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 12 November 2019Source: Enzyme and Microbial TechnologyAuthor(s): Lovaine Silva Duarte, Laísa Quadros Barsé, Pedro Ferrari Dalberto, William Tadeu Santos da Silva, Rafael Costa Rodrigues, Pablo Machado, Luiz Augusto Basso, Cristiano Valim Bizarro, Marco Antônio Záchia AyubAbstractTransglutaminases (TGases) are a class of transferases widely used in the food and biotechnology industries. In this work, we describe the production of recombinant Bacillus amyloliquefaciens TGase in Escherichia coli, obtaining the protein in its soluble and active form. In order to re...
Source: Enzyme and Microbial Technology - Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research
Org. Biomol. Chem., 2019, Advance Article DOI: 10.1039/C9OB02199J, PaperMolhm Nassir, Salahuddin Mirza, Uri Arad, Sangyong Lee, Muhammad Rafehi, Isaac Yaw Attah, Christian Renn, Herbert Zimmermann, Julie Pelletier, Jean S évigny, Christa E. Müller, Bilha Fischer Nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase-1 (NPP1) inhibitors have been suggested as a potential treatment for calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) deposition disease. To cite this article before page numbers are assigned, use the DOI form of citation above. The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry
Source: RSC - Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 13 November 2019Source: PeptidesAuthor(s): Nigel Irwin, Victor A. Gault, Finbarr P.M. O’Harte, Peter R. FlattAbstractGastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) is a 42 amino acid hormone secreted from intestinal K-cells in response to nutrient ingestion. Despite a recognised physiological role for GIP as an insulin secretagogue to control postprandial blood glucose levels, growing evidence reveals important actions of GIP on adipocytes and promotion of fat deposition in tissues. As such, blockade of GIP receptor (GIPR) action has been proposed as a means to counter insulin resistance, and...
Source: Peptides - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research
ConclusionThe results of the present study demonstrate that acute NaNO2 intoxication provokes changes in the endogenous levels of Fe, Ca and Zn in mouse spleen. These findings suggest disruption of the ionic balance and impact on the activity of antioxidant defence enzymes.
Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 12 November 2019Source: Chemical Engineering ScienceAuthor(s): A. Ebneyamini, J. Grace, J.C. Lim, N. Ellis, S.S.E.H. Elnashaie, A. Mahecha-BoteroAbstractThis paper investigates the performance of combining limestone calcination with catalytic methane reforming and combustion in turbulent fluidized bed membrane reactors. The equilibrium performance of the process was evaluated using Aspen simulation, with a unique correlation to estimate the required gaseous feed composition for autothermal and complete sorbent regeneration at operating temperatures of 800-900°C. A one–dimensiona...
Source: Chemical Engineering Science - Category: Chemistry Source Type: research
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