Modeling Streptococcus pyogenes Pharyngeal Colonization in the Mouse

In conclusion, the mouse pharyngeal colonization model is an affordable and accessible experimental system that allows a broader group of research groups to test the importance of their findings in an in vivo model. There is a great deal of overlap between the bacterial and immune factors found to be important in human and murine pharyngeal colonization. Although MHC-II humanized mice could prove useful in answering certain questions, the use of inbred mouse lines appears to be sufficient for evaluation of most questions, both related to bacterial factors and the host immune response. However, when promising treatments or vaccines against GAS are identified, non-human primate models remain the gold standard and should be utilized to validate all results. Author Contributions AG conducted most of the literature review and initial writing of the text. MF edited and contributed to the expansion of several sections of the review. Funding This work was supported by NIH NIAID 2R01 AI091779-06 (Federle-PI) and NIAID 1F30 AI136359-01A1 (Gogos-PI). Conflict of Interest Statement The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Acknowledgments We would like to thank Kate Rahbari, Britta Rued, and Jennifer Chang for reading through the text and providing valuable comments and suggestions. References Alam, F. M., Turner, C. E., Smith, K., Wiles, S., and...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 30 September 2020Source: Journal of Hazardous MaterialsAuthor(s): Anthony Beauvois, Delphine Vantelon, Jacques Jestin, Martine Bouhnik-Le Coz, Charlotte Catrouillet, Valérie Briois, Thomas Bizien, Mélanie Davranche
Source: Journal of Hazardous Materials - Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Xyloglucan/gelose plus ORS was effective and safe in treating acute diarrhea in children. PMID: 33028102 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research
Authors: Saavedra J, Reyes JG, Salinas DG Abstract Cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+ ]) has an important role in spermatozoa and hence it regulates fertilization. In male germinal cells, there are indirect evidences that this ion could regulate physiological processes in spermatogenesis. Since little is known about Ca 2+ homeostasis in spermatogenic cells, in this work we propose a mathematical model that accounts for experimental [Ca2+ ] dynamics triggered by blockade of the SERCA transport ATPase with thapsigargin in round rat spermatids, without external Ca2+ and with different extracellular lactate concentrat...
Source: Channels - Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Channels (Austin) Source Type: research
Conclusions: (1) Data at our center suggests at least a regional implementation gap in GBS screening and IAP. (2) The decline in the resistance rate ofE. coli for all antimicrobial substances might indicate that the reduction of prenatal antibiotics use is beneficial and that neonatal antibiotic stewardship programs should include pregnant women as well.What is Known:• GBS screening and intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis led to a 32%-reduction in GBS disease in Germany with a 0.75 (92:122) ratio of early-onset disease to late-onset disease in 2009–2010.• Prenatal antibiotic use might increase the risk of E....
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research
Abstract Trace metals concentrations of 25 elements were determined for 22 subcomponents of biodegradable and non-biodegradable waste samples representing the United States municipal solid waste (MSW) stream collected during three separate waste sorts. The subcomponent trace metal concentrations and estimated composition results were used to predict trace metal concentrations present in the overall MSW stream along with MSW compost and waste to energy (WTE) ash, which were compared to health-based standards (i.e., US EPA regional screening levels) and to values previously reported in the literature. These estimate...
Source: Chemosphere - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research
In this study, an attempt to oxidise the surface of a commercial activated carbon to improve its adsorption capacity for sevoflurane was conducted using 6 mol/L nitric acid, 2 mol/L ammonium persulfate, and 30 wt per cent (wt%) of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The adsorption tests at fixed conditions (bed depth: 10 cm, inlet concentration: 528 mg/L, and flow rate: 3 L/min) revealed that H2O2 oxidation gave desirable sevoflurane adsorption (0.510 ± 0.005 mg/m2). A parametric study was conducted with H2O2 to investigate the effect of oxidation conditions to the changes in surfa...
Source: Chemosphere - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research
In conclusion, the presence of anti-SOX1 abs alone is a potential predictor of an uncommon paraneoplastic neurological disorder, usually occurring in the setting of LEMS, PCD, and SCLC. The detection of anti-SOX1 abs contributes to an early diagnosis of underlying tumors, given the diversity of clinical symptoms and the absence of characteristic neuroimaging features. PMID: 33029958 [PubMed]
Source: Journal of Clinical Neurology - Category: Neurology Tags: J Clin Neurol Source Type: research
ConclusionEndoscope gives a panoramic view, better optics, magnified image of the bleeders and hence there is applicability of the endoscope holder for endoscopic tonsillectomy.
Source: European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research
ConclusionAS/AD is a mechanical disorder of the larynx that can be successfully treated if promptly diagnosed. Clinical trials and multi-centric studies are necessary to set management guidelines.
Source: European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 9 October 2020Source: Journal of Pharmacological SciencesAuthor(s): Hiroyuki Saito, Ryuichi Kambayashi, Mihoko Hagiwara-Nagasawa, Yoshio Nunoi, Ai Goto, Hiroko Izumi-Nakaseko, Shinichi Kawai, Yoshinori Takei, Akio Matsumoto, Kiyotaka Hoshiai, Yasuki Akie, Atsushi Sugiyama
Source: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
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