Leishmania braziliensis Infection Enhances Toll-Like Receptors 2 and 4 Expression and Triggers TNF- α and IL-10 Production in Human Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

This study was carried out in accordance with the recommendations of Institutional Review Board of the Federal University of Bahia, Brazil, with written informed consent from all subjects. All subjects gave written informed consent in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. The protocol was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the Federal University of Bahia, Brazil (approval number 693.111). Human Blood Samples and Preparation of Peripheral Blood Cells Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were separated from heparinized venous blood by Ficoll-Hypaque gradient centrifugation. Cells were then washed in saline and resuspended in RPMI 1640 (supplemented with 5% of fetal calf serum, 100 U penicillin/mL, 100 ug streptomycin/ mL) (GIBCO BRL., Grand Island, NY, USA). Parasites An isolate of leishmania obtained from a skin lesion of a CL patient from Corte de Pedra (MHOM/BR/LTCP11245) was characterized as L. brazilensis using PCR and multicolus enzyme electrophoresis (Cupolillo et al., 1994). Parasites were initially grown in biphasic medium (NNN). After isolation, the parasite was cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen. The parasites selected for this study had not been previously passaged in liquid culture medium. After selection, the parasites were expanded in complete Schneider's medium (Aldrch Sigma, St. Louis, MO) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) (Gilco BRL) and 2% sterile urine. For in vitro infection of PBMC, the promastigotes in the sta...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

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Authors: Reissier S, Cattoir V Abstract INTRODUCTION: Streptogramins (pristinamycin and quinupristin-dalfopristin) can be interesting options for the treatment of infections due to Gram-positive cocci, especially multidrug-resistant isolates. AREAS COVERED: This review provides an updated overview on structural and activity characteristics, mechanisms of action and resistance, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic and clinical use of streptogramins. EXPERT OPINION: The streptogramin antibiotics act by inhibition of the bacterial protein synthesis. They are composed of two chemically distinct compounds, namely typ...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 10 October 2020Source: Journal of Genetics and GenomicsAuthor(s): Chengqi Wang, Justin Gibbons, Swamy R. Adapa, Jenna Oberstaller, Xiangyun Liao, Min Zhang, John H. Adams, Rays H.Y. Jiang
Source: Journal of Genetics and Genomics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
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Source: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Scand J Gastroenterol Source Type: research
Authors: Peng C, Cohen DJ Abstract INTRODUCTION: Esophageal squamous cancer remains an important cause of mortality worldwide with two new immunotherapy drugs recently approved for metastatic disease. AREAS COVERED: The authors review the epidemiology and genomics of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. They also examine prior trials involving targeted agents under investigation as well immunotherapies that have been approved and novel combinations. EXPERT OPINION: Great advances have been made in characterizing the molecular changes in esophageal carcinoma. However, relatively few drugs have shown benefit i...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research
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Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research
Abstract Trace metals concentrations of 25 elements were determined for 22 subcomponents of biodegradable and non-biodegradable waste samples representing the United States municipal solid waste (MSW) stream collected during three separate waste sorts. The subcomponent trace metal concentrations and estimated composition results were used to predict trace metal concentrations present in the overall MSW stream along with MSW compost and waste to energy (WTE) ash, which were compared to health-based standards (i.e., US EPA regional screening levels) and to values previously reported in the literature. These estimate...
Source: Chemosphere - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of Clinical Neurology - Category: Neurology Tags: J Clin Neurol Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of Clinical Neurology - Category: Neurology Tags: J Clin Neurol Source Type: research
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Source: The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
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Source: Forbes.com Healthcare News - Category: Pharmaceuticals Authors: Tags: Healthcare /healthcare Innovation /innovation business pharma & Source Type: news
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