Acute Kidney Injury, Chronic Kidney Disease, and Mortality Acute Kidney Injury, Chronic Kidney Disease, and Mortality

This essay highlights the underlying pathophysiology and complex interrelationship between acute kidney injury--a common and serious postoperative complication--and chronic kidney disease.Anesthesia &Analgesia
Source: Medscape Today Headlines - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Anesthesiology Journal Article Source Type: news

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In this study, we investigated the antihypertensive effect and underlying mechanisms of P. asiatica L. seeds extract (PASE) in spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). Male SHRs were treated with 2.5 mg/kg of fosinopril (FOS) and 400 mg/kg of PASE orally per day for once or 12 weeks. SHR or Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) receiving vehicle (distilled water) was used as control. The results demonstrated systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressures (SBP, DBP, and MBP) were significantly lowered after single and long-term intragastric administration of PASE. The cardiac and aortic index and collagen accumulation were improved in the PA...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
In this study, we therefore examined whether FKN could stimulate the process of EMT, NF-kB, TGFβ, CCL22, F4/80, inflammation, and tubulointerstitial fibrosis in a murine model of LN. We also determined whether FKN was involved in the EMT process of Wnt/β-catenin-expressing HK-2 cells. Mechanistically, we ascertained, for the first time, whether FKN up-regulated EMT-related gene signatures (e.g., vimentin, α-SMA), and hence, renal tubulointerstitial fibrogenesis, and the role of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in this process. Materials and Methods Cell Culture, Stable Infection, and Grouping HK-...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Sara AlMarabeh, Mohammed H. Abdulla and Ken D. O'Halloran* Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, College of Medicine and Health, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland Renal sensory nerves are important in the regulation of body fluid and electrolyte homeostasis, and blood pressure. Activation of renal mechanoreceptor afferents triggers a negative feedback reno-renal reflex that leads to the inhibition of sympathetic nervous outflow. Conversely, activation of renal chemoreceptor afferents elicits reflex sympathoexcitation. Dysregulation of reno-renal reflexes by suppression of the inhibitory refle...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
PMID: 30994543 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Anesthesia and Analgesia - Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Tags: Anesth Analg Source Type: research
In this study, we sought to further characterize ILC2s in the kidney, their location within this organ and determine their functional role in IRI using a loss-of-function approach. Here, we found that kidney ILC2s constitutively express IL-5 and are primarily located in close proximity to the renal vasculature, within the adventitia. Additionally, we demonstrate that a reduction, deficiency or depletion of ILC2s had minimal impact on the severity of IRI. Whilst activation of ILC2s and the associated amplification of local type 2 immunity has been previously shown to reduce the deleterious consequences of AKI, our results r...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
In conclusion, the present study identified canagliflozin as a potent inhibitor of human EC proliferation. The anti-proliferative action of canagliflozin is observed in ECs isolated from both the venous and arterial circulation, and is partly due to the blockade of cyclin A expression. In addition, this study found that canagliflozin inhibits tube formation in cultured ECs and mouse aortic rings. Notably, these actions are specific for canagliflozin and not seen with other SGLT2 inhibitors. The ability of canagliflozin to exert these pleiotropic effects on EC function may contribute to both the adverse and salutary actions...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
ck RP, SIRS Investigators Abstract BACKGROUND: Perioperative corticosteroid use may reduce acute kidney injury. We sought to test whether methylprednisolone reduces the risk of acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery. METHODS: We conducted a prespecified substudy of a randomized controlled trial involving patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (2007-2014); patients were recruited from 79 centres in 18 countries. Eligibility criteria included a moderate-to-high risk of perioperative death based on a preoperative score of 6 or greater on the European System for Cardiac Operative Risk ...
Source: cmaj - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: CMAJ Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 2 February 2019Source: Respiratory Physiology &NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Manash Saha, Clement Menuet, Qi-Jian Sun, Peter G.R. Burke, Cara M. Hildreth, Andrew M. Allen, Jacqueline K. PhillipsAbstractRespiratory modulation of sympathetic nerve activity (respSNA) was studied in a hypertensive rodent model of chronic kidney disease (CKD) using Lewis Polycystic Kidney (LPK) rats and Lewis controls. In adult animals under in vivo anaesthetised conditions (n = 8-10/strain), respiratory modulation of splanchnic and renal nerve activity was compared under control conditions, and dur...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research
Abstract Chronic kidney disease (CKD) occurs in more than 50% of patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). However, the impact of intermittent hypoxia (IH) on renal function and oxygen homeostasis is unclear. Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to IH (270 secs at 21% O2; 90 secs hypoxia, 6.5% O2 at nadir) for 4 h (AIH) or to chronic IH (CIH) for 8h/day for 2 weeks. Animals were anesthetized and surgically prepared for the measurement of mean arterial pressure (MAP), and left renal excretory function, renal blood flow (RBF), and renal oxygen tension (PO2). AIH had no effect on MAP (123±14 versus (v) 129...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research
The aim of this meta-analysis was to compare the clinical outcomes of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) with those of surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD).
Source: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia - Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
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