TECHNIQUES Microscale and Nanoscale Electrophotonic Diagnostic Devices

Detecting and identifying infectious agents and potential pathogens in complex environments and characterizing their mode of action is a critical need. Traditional diagnostics have targeted a single characteristic (e.g., spectral response, surface receptor, mass, intrinsic conductivity, etc.). However, advances in detection technologies have identified emerging approaches in which multiple modes of action are combined to obtain enhanced performance characteristics. Particularly appealing in this regard, electrophotonic devices capable of coupling light to electron translocation have experienced rapid recent growth and offer significant advantages for diagnostics. In this review, we explore three specific promising approaches that combine electronics and photonics: (1) assays based on closed bipolar electrochemistry coupling electron transfer to color or fluorescence, (2) sensors based on localized surface plasmon resonances, and (3) emerging nanophotonics approaches, such as those based on zero-mode waveguides and metamaterials.
Source: Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in medicine - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Bioelectronic Medicine TECHNIQUES Source Type: research

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ConclusionsBP1 and MDD are characterized by an upregulation of the nitrosylome (the proteome of nitrosylated proteins) and increased IgM responses to nitrosylated conjugates. Increased nitrosylation may be driven by increased bacterial translocation and is associated with lipid peroxidation processes. Innate-like (B1 and marginal zone) B cells and increased nitrosylation may play a key role in the major affective disorders through activation of immune-inflammatory and oxidative pathways, cardiovascular comorbidity and impairments in antioxidant defenses, neuro-glial interactions, synaptic plasticity, neuroprotection, neurogenesis.
Source: Nitric Oxide - Category: Chemistry Source Type: research
In this study, C57BL/6 and Tau KO mice were used. For Tau KO mice, Western blot results of anti-Tau protein specific antibodies showed that Tau KO mice had no positive bands at 50–55 kDa (Tau protein position), while C57BL/6 mice normally expressed Tau protein (Figure 1).FIGURE 1Figure 1 Tau knockout (KO) mice did not express Tau protein.The C57BL/6 mice exhibited depressive behaviors, including anxiety, anhedonia, and depression-like after CUMS, and ketamine treatment alleviated their depressive behavior. Tau KO mice did not exhibit depressive behavior after CUMS. After treatment with ketamine at the same dose, ther...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Conclusion Taken together, evidence from animal and human studies demonstrates that the brain detects levels of circulating nutrients and hormones and consequently organizes an outward response that contributes to the regulation of whole-body glucose homeostasis. However, there are major knowledge gaps about the exact nature of this response and its relative importance compared to peripheral processes. As we have seen, animal studies have provided an anatomical map of CNS glucose regulation and have identified important neurons and neural circuits involved. Additionally, the CNS sensing of key nutrients and hormones has b...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
Does Prenatal Stress Shape Postnatal Resilience? – An Epigenome-Wide Study on Violence and Mental Health in Humans Fernanda Serpeloni1,2, Karl M. Radtke1,3, Tobias Hecker4, Johanna Sill1, Vanja Vukojevic5, Simone G. de Assis2, Maggie Schauer1, Thomas Elbert1 and Daniel Nätt6* 1Clinical Psychology and Neuropsychology, Department of Psychology, University of Konstanz, Konstanz, Germany 2Department of Studies in Violence and Health Jorge Careli, National School of Public Health of Rio de Janeiro – National Institute of Women, Children and Adolescents Health Fernandes Figueira, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, ...
Source: Frontiers in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
Conclusions The current review reports recent epidemiological and experimental data supporting the bright future of dietary polyphenols as chemopreventive, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and anticancer agents in CRC (Figure 1). The polyphenol-rich diet not only may represent a chemopreventive treatment but also has important function on immune system by promoting symbiont and commensal bacterial populations, increases reciprocal interaction between host and microbiota which in turn have important effects on immune function Evidence underlines the use of polyphenols as sensitizers of chemo/radiotherapies paving the w...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
This study was initiated to identify C. jejuni proteins that contribute to adaptation to the host cell environment and cellular invasion. We demonstrated that C. jejuni responds to INT 407 and Caco-2 cells in a similar fashion at the cellular and molecular levels. Active protein synthesis was found to be required for C. jejuni to maximally invade these host cells. Proteomic and transcriptomic approaches were then used to define the protein and gene expression profiles of C. jejuni co-cultured with cells. By focusing on those genes showing increased expression by C. jejuni when co-cultured with epithelial cells, we discover...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Cytoplasmic dynein participates in multiple aspects of neocortical development. These include neural progenitor proliferation, morphogenesis, and neuronal migration. The cytoplasmic dynein light intermediate chains (LICs) 1 and 2 are cargo-binding subunits, though their relative roles are not well understood. Here, we used in utero electroporation of shRNAs or LIC functional domains to determine the relative contributions of the two LICs in the developing rat brain. We find that LIC1, through BicD2, is required for apical nuclear migration in neural progenitors. In newborn neurons, we observe specific roles for LIC1 in the...
Source: Journal of Cell Biology - Category: Cytology Authors: Tags: Migration, Motility, Development, Neuroscience Reports Source Type: research
AbstractExtracellular matrix (ECM) deposition in active demyelinating multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions may impede axonal regeneration and can modify immune reactions. Response gene to complement (RGC)-32 plays an important role in the mediation of TGF- β downstream effects, but its role in gliosis has not been investigated. To gain more insight into the role played by RGC-32 in gliosis, we investigated its involvement in TGF-β-induced ECM expression and the upregulation of the reactive astrocyte markers α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and nestin . In cultured neonatal rat astrocytes, collagens I, IV, and...
Source: Immunologic Research - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 5 April 2018Source: Neuroscience ResearchAuthor(s): Hiroki Umeshima, Ken-ichi Nomura, Shuhei Yoshikawa, Marcel Hörning, Motomu Tanaka, Shinya Sakuma, Fumihito Arai, Makoto Kaneko, Mineko KengakuAbstractSomal translocation in long bipolar neurons is regulated by actomyosin contractile forces, yet the precise spatiotemporal sites of force generation are unknown. Here we investigate the force dynamics generated during somal translocation using traction force microscopy. Neurons with a short leading process generated a traction force in the growth cone and counteracting forces in the lea...
Source: Neuroscience Research - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Newborn neurons maintain a very simple, bipolar shape, while they migrate from their birthplace toward their destinations in the brain, where they differentiate into mature neurons with complex dendritic morphologies. Here, we report a mechanism by which the termination of neuronal migration is maintained in the postnatal olfactory bulb (OB). During neuronal deceleration in the OB, newborn neurons transiently extend a protrusion from the proximal part of their leading process in the resting phase, which we refer to as a filopodium-like lateral protrusion (FLP). The FLP formation is induced by PlexinD1 downregulation and lo...
Source: EMBO Journal - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Cell Adhesion, Polarity & Cytoskeleton, Neuroscience Articles Source Type: research
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