PERSPECTIVES Hepatitis A Virus Capsid Structure

Hepatitis A virus (HAV) has been enigmatic, evading detailed structural analysis for many years. Its recently determined high-resolution structure revealed an angular surface without the indentations often characteristic of receptor-binding sites. The viral protein 1 (VP1) β-barrel shows no sign of a pocket factor and the amino terminus of VP2 displays a "domain swap" across the pentamer interface, as in a subset of mammalian picornaviruses and insect picorna-like viruses. Structure-based phylogeny confirms this placement. These differences suggest an uncoating mechanism distinct from that of enteroviruses. An empty capsid structure reveals internal differences in VP0 and the VP1 amino terminus connected with particle maturation. An HAV/Fab complex structure, in which the antigen-binding fragment (Fab) appears to act as a receptor–mimic, clarifies some historical epitope mapping data, but some remain difficult to reconcile. We still have little idea of the structural features of enveloped HAV particles.
Source: Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in medicine - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Enteric Hepatitis Viruses PERSPECTIVES Source Type: research

Related Links:

This study focused on the molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of the EVs and HAVs identified in 33 sewage samples collected every 15  days at the influent of a wastewater treatment plant located in Northern Italy from March to October 2016. According to the results of the molecular characterization, the most frequently identified viruses were Echovirus 6 (E-6), E-11 and HAV-IA. The phylogenetic analyses indicated the rapid genet ic evolution of E-6 and E-1; noteworthy, most E-11 strains clustered with a strain isolated from a clinical sample collected in the same geographical area over the same period...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - Category: Virology Source Type: research
In conclusion, the DHAV-1 CH60 strain may inhibit the expression of IFNα by increasing the SOCS3 protein and SOCS3 can in turn decrease STAT1 and STAT3 mRNA levels, thereby inhibiting the antiviral protein MX1 and ultimately promoting viral proliferation, indirectly assisting in viral adaptation in chicken embryos. Introduction Duck hepatitis A virus type 1 (DHAV-1) is one of the most lethal pathogens for ducks, especially ducklings
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: The parallel surveillance of EntV and HAV in the river water polluted with sewage, and clinical samples is quite helpful for controlling and reducing the disease burden of the waterborne illnesses. PMID: 30586962 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine : AAEM - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Ann Agric Environ Med Source Type: research
AbstractLack of wastewater treatment efficiency causes receiving seawaters and bivalve molluscan shellfish to become contaminated, which can lead to public health issues. Six wastewater samples, five seawater samples and three batches of giant clams from Tahiti (French Polynesia) were investigated for the presence of enteric viruses, but also if present, for the diversity, infectivity and integrity of human adenoviruses (HAdV). Enteroviruses (EV), sapoviruses (SaV) and human polyomaviruses (HPyV) were detected in all wastewater samples. In decreasing frequency, noroviruses (NoV) GII and HAdV, rotaviruses (RoV), astroviruse...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - Category: Virology Source Type: research
Abstract One-year surveillance for enteric viruses in raw sewage was conducted in Kansai area, central part of Japan from July 2015 to June 2016. The raw sewage was collected monthly from an inlet polluted pool and was concentrated by polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation. Twelve sewage samples were screened for nineteen kinds of enteric viruses by using RT-PCR method and further analyzed by nucleotide sequencing. Twelve enteric viruses were found in the investigative sewage samples. Rotavirus A and norovirus GI and GII with several genotypes were detected all year round. Interestingly, norovirus GII.17 (Kawasak...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research
Conclusion: The environmental surveillance overcomes the sampling bias intrinsic to the study of infections associated with hospitalisation and allows the detection in real time of viral sequences genetically close to those reported in clinical specimens. PMID: 29471623 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Euro Surveill - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research
Journal of Applied Microbiology,Volume 124, Issue 4, Page 965-976, April 2018.
Source: Journal of Applied Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
ConclusionThe use of surfactant/Reagent D‐RT‐qPCR, although not being able to completely remove the signal from non‐infectious viral particles, yielded a better estimation of viral infectivity. Significance and impact of the studySurfactant/Reagent D‐RT‐qPCR may be an advantageous tool for a better detection of infectious viruses with potential significant impact in the risk assessment of the presence of enteric viruses.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Source: Journal of Applied Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Special Issue article Source Type: research
The objective of the present study was to assess the occurrence of major waterborne enteric viruses (enterovirus, norovirus, adenovirus, rotavirus, hepatitis A and E virus) along the Tiber River in Italy, in areas affected by different kinds of anthropogenic pressure (agricultural, urban, industrial, and pristine). Moreover, in light of the recent abundant detection of human bocavirus in urban wastewater samples in Italy, the occurrence of this virus was also assessed. Virus detection was based on nested PCR followed by sequencing, and on Real Time PCR. A correlation with anthropogenic pressure was observed. The urban and ...
Source: Letters in Applied Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
The Picornaviridae are a diverse family of RNA viruses including many pathogens of medical and veterinary importance. Classically considered “nonenveloped,” recent studies show that some picornaviruses, notably hepatitis A virus (HAV; genus Hepatovirus) and some members of the Enterovirus genus, are released from cells nonlytically in membranous vesicles. To better...
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research
More News: Enterovirus | Hepatitis | Hepatitis A | History of Medicine | Research