RETROSPECTIVE History of the Discovery of Hepatitis A Virus

Disease outbreaks resembling hepatitis A have been known since antiquity. However, it was not until World War II when two forms of viral hepatitis were clearly differentiated. After the discovery of Australia antigen and its association with hepatitis B, similar methodologies were used to find the hepatitis A virus. The virus was ultimately identified when investigators changed the focus of their search from serum to feces and applied appropriate technology.
Source: Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in medicine - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Enteric Hepatitis Viruses RETROSPECTIVE Source Type: research

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The rise of vaccine-preventable illnesses, such as measles and hepatitis, in the United States and around the globe has been alarming in recent years. For women — especially those hoping to become pregnant, as well as women who are pregnant or have recently had a baby — vaccines can be a worrisome topic. There are many misconceptions about vaccine safety in and around pregnancy that can lead to confusion and unnecessary fear of a lifesaving medical tool. As a practicing ob/gyn, I often discuss vaccines with my patients and help them sort out fears versus facts. Which vaccines should you consider before concepti...
Source: Harvard Health Blog - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Health Parenting Pregnancy Vaccines Women's Health Source Type: blogs
In conclusion, European countries now have more comprehensive national vaccination programs for HCP, however there are still gaps. Given the recent large outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases in Europe and the occupational risk for HCP, vaccination policies need to be expanded and strengthened in several European countries. Overall, vaccination policies for HCP in Europe should be periodically re-evaluated in order to provide optimal protection against vaccine-preventable diseases and infection control within healthcare facilities for HCP and patients. PMID: 31623916 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
Mark K. Slifka1* and Ian J. Amanna2 1Division of Neuroscience, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Oregon Health &Science University, Beaverton, OR, United States2Najít Technologies, Inc., Beaverton, OR, United States Vaccines play a vital role in protecting our communities against infectious disease. Unfortunately, some vaccines provide only partial protection or in some cases vaccine-mediated immunity may wane rapidly, resulting in either increased susceptibility to that disease or a requirement for more booster vaccinations in order to maintain immunity above a protective level. The durability of a...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Abstract BACKGROUND: Several outbreaks of Hepatitis A virus (HAV) were recently documented among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Europe. We investigated the HAV incidence among MSM in Amsterdam, the Netherlands; and HAV seroprevalence and HAV vaccination decision among MSM visiting the Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI) clinic in Amsterdam. METHODS: Using surveillance data from 1992 to 2017 of MSM with acute HAV in Amsterdam, we estimated the incidence by calendar year and age. We explored HAV seroprevalence by calendar year and age, determinants for HAV seropositivity, and opting-in/out for HAV vaccinat...
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
Conclusions Apart West Nile virus (78), thousands of congenital microcephaly cases, fetal brain tissue damage and neurological syndromes have been associated with ZIKV infection. Unfortunately, the epidemics of this mosquito born, and a relative stable virus is on a rise. Although congenital microcephaly is a rare disorder however, due to lack of standardized diagnostic test facilities, the incidence in the geographically widespread ZIKV epidemic regions is higher. Animals studies showed that ZIKV is a neurotropic virus. It directly targets the developing embryonic brain cells by inducing apoptosis, cell-cycle arrest, and...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Conclusion: Our results confirmed that a vaccination approach could facilitate diagnosis of chronic HBV infection in the presence of isolated anti-HBc. If it were not for a family outbreak of hepatitis A, this unexpected family HBV focus would not have been revealed.
Source: The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
ConclusionsConsiderable vaccination delay should be addressed within the vaccine hesitancy spectrum. Delays may induce susceptibility to vaccine-preventable disease outbreaks; tailored programmes to improve timeliness are required. PMID: 30755293 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Euro Surveill - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research
Purpose of review This review describes the impact of recommendations for routine immunization of infants and children against hepatitis A and hepatitis B, the changing epidemiology of these infections, and the remaining challenges to controlling or eliminating these diseases in the United States. Recent findings Rates of hepatitis A and B have significantly declined because of childhood vaccination programs and long-term protection provided by infant immunization. However, hepatitis A immunization rates remain lower than other vaccines, and outbreaks continue to occur in part due to a growing number of susceptible ad...
Source: Current Opinion in Pediatrics - Category: Pediatrics Tags: OFFICE PEDIATRICS: Edited by Henry H. Bernstein Source Type: research
Neha Gautam, Shriya Ganju, Sunite A Ganju, Sohini Walia, Anil Kanga KumarIndian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2018 36(1):121-123Hepatitis E infection (HEV) in pregnant females, especially in the third trimester is associated with poor foetomaternal outcomes. However, the mechanisms of severe liver injury remain obscure. In a recent HEV outbreak in North India, six pregnant females were detected to be positive for HEV infection with concomitant hepatitis A infection in three pregnant females. None of the pregnant females were positive for hepatitis B or hepatitis C infection. The mortality was 50% in pregnant females....
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Source Type: research
Abstract Asylum seekers are a vulnerable population for contracting infectious diseases. Outbreaks occur among children and adults. In the Netherlands, asylum seeker children are offered vaccination according to the National Immunization Program. Little is known about protection against vaccine-preventable diseases (VPD) in adult asylum seekers. In this 2016 study, we assessed the immunity of adult asylum seekers against nine VPD to identify groups that might benefit from additional vaccinations. We invited asylum seekers from Syria, Iran, Iraq, Afghanistan, Eritrea and Ethiopia to participate in a serosurvey. Par...
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
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