Chemical Equilibrium at the Tick –Host Feeding Interface:A Critical Examination of Biological Relevance in Hematophagous Behavior

Chemical Equilibrium at the Tick–Host Feeding Interface:A Critical Examination of Biological Relevance in Hematophagous Behavior Ben J. Mans1,2,3* 1Epidemiology, Parasites and Vectors, Agricultural Research Council-Onderstepoort Veterinary Research, Pretoria, South Africa 2Department of Veterinary Tropical Diseases, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa 3Department of Life and Consumer Sciences, University of South Africa, Pretoria, South Africa Ticks secrete hundreds to thousands of proteins into the feeding site, that presumably all play important functions in the modulation of host defense mechanisms. The current review considers the assumption that tick proteins have functional relevance during feeding. The feeding site may be described as a closed system and could be treated as an ideal equilibrium system, thereby allowing modeling of tick–host interactions in an equilibrium state. In this equilibrium state, the concentration of host and tick proteins and their affinities will determine functional relevance at the tick–host interface. Using this approach, many characterized tick proteins may have functional relevant concentrations and affinities at the feeding site. Conversely, the feeding site is not an ideal closed system, but is dynamic and changing, leading to possible overestimation of tick protein concentration at the feeding site and consequently an overestimation of functional relevance. Ticks have evolved different possible ...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research

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Conclusions Although both types of flaps offer a satisfactory approach for finger reconstruction with small-to-medium defects, FDUAP flaps are more suitable for such operations because of the better sensory reconstruction and aesthetic results.
Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery - Category: Cosmetic Surgery Tags: Hand Surgery Source Type: research
This study compares the postoperative pain and opioid use in patients managed for surgery with general anesthesia (GA) with patients who were given combined epidural and general anesthesia (E/GA) with continuing postoperative epidural analgesia. Methods All patients who underwent penile inversion vaginoplasty between May of 2016 and May of 2018 under the care of single surgeon were identified retrospectively, 18 patients of which met the inclusion criteria. A retrospective chart review was conducted. Outcome measures were postoperative pain using visual analog scale, type and dosage of postoperatively administered intra...
Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery - Category: Cosmetic Surgery Tags: Reconstructive Surgery Source Type: research
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Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery - Category: Cosmetic Surgery Tags: Review Paper Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of Integrative Medicine - Category: Complementary Medicine Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of Integrative Medicine - Category: Complementary Medicine Source Type: research
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Source: Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology - Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research
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