Evaluation of vaccine delivery systems for inducing long-lived antibody responses to Dermanyssus gallinae antigen in laying hens.

Evaluation of vaccine delivery systems for inducing long-lived antibody responses to Dermanyssus gallinae antigen in laying hens. Avian Pathol. 2019 Apr 29;:1-44 Authors: Price DRG, Küster T, Øines Ø, Margaret Oliver E, Bartley K, Nunn F, Barbero JFL, Pritchard J, Karp-Tatham E, Hauge H, Blake DP, Tomley FM, Nisbet AJ Abstract Dermanyssus gallinae, the poultry red mite, is a global threat to the commercial egg-laying industry. Control of D. gallinae is difficult, with only a limited number of effective pesticides and non-chemical treatments available. Here we characterise the candidate vaccine antigen D. gallinae cathepsin D-1 (Dg-CatD-1) and demonstrate that purified refolded recombinant Dg-Cat-D1 (rDg-CatD-1) is an active aspartyl proteinase which digests haemoglobin with a pH optimum of pH 4. Soluble protein extracts from D. gallinae also have haemoglobinase activity, with a pH optimum comparable to the recombinant protein and both proteinase activities were inhibited by the aspartyl proteinase inhibitor Pepstatin A. Enzyme activity and the ubiquitous localization of Dg-CatD-1 protein in sections of adult female mites is consistent with Dg-CatD-1 being a lysosomal proteinase. Using Dg-CatD-1 as a model vaccine antigen, we compared vaccine delivery methods in laying hens via vaccination with: i) purified rDg-CatD-1 with Montanide™ ISA 71 VG adjuvant; ii) recombinant DNA vaccines for expression of rDg-CatD-1 and iii) transgenic ...
Source: Avian Pathology - Category: Pathology Authors: Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

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Abstract Attenuated strains of avian Eimeria parasites, generated by the selection of precocious lines through serial passaging in chicks, have been used widely as live vaccines. Detailed morphological transitions including their life cycle depending on the passages remain poorly understood. Here, we showed early development and acceleration of transitions in morphological forms of the asexual schizonts of E. tenella that had been attenuated for virulence by serial passaging. Our results may be helpful in understanding parasitism, facilitating further molecular analyses such as comparative genomic or transcriptomi...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research
The flu season is up and running in the Northern Hemisphere, and early signs in both the United States and Europe are that the effects might not be quite as severe as the brutal 2017/18 season. The United States is predominantly seeing H1N1 circulating, while monitoring in Europe has identified co-circulation of H1N1 and H3N2—both varieties of Influenza A that should be covered by the seasonable vaccine. What if they weren’t though? Influenza A can be found in both human and animal populations, and it evolves rapidly through genetic mutation. Each year many humans rely on their country&a...
Source: MDDI - Category: Medical Devices Authors: Tags: IVD Source Type: news
Publication date: Available online 15 January 2019Source: Molecular and Biochemical ParasitologyAuthor(s): Chunhui Duan, Dandan Hu, Xinming Tang, Jingxia Suo, Si wang, Sixin Zhang, Geru Tao, Chao Li, Chaoyue Wang, Xiaolong Gu, Xiaoli Tang, Guangping Huang, Biqi Xiang, Shaoqiang Wu, Choukri Ben Mamoun, Xun Suo, Xianyong LiuAbstractEimeria spp., the causative agents of coccidiosis, are the most common protozoan pathogens of chickens. Infection with these parasites can result in poor development or death of animals leading to a devastating economic impact on poultry production. The establishment of transfection protocols for ...
Source: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology - Category: Parasitology Source Type: research
Abstract Parasites of the genus Plasmodium infect a wide array of hosts, causing malaria in all major groups of terrestrial vertebrates including primates, reptiles, and birds. Molecular mechanisms explaining why some Plasmodium species are virulent, while other closely related malaria pathogens are relatively benign in the same hosts, remain unclear. Here, we present the RNA sequencing and subsequent transcriptome assembly of two avian Plasmodium parasites which can eventually be used to better understand the genetic mechanisms underlying Plasmodium species pathogenicity in an avian host. Plasmodium homocircumfle...
Source: Genomics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Genomics Source Type: research
This study reviews the current trends on the identification and control of chicken coccidiosis with focus on (1) Avian coccidiosis (2) Epidemiology of chicken coccidiosis (3)Eimeria parasite and distribution in poultry (4) Diagnosis ofEimeria parasite (5) Control measures of coccidiosis (6) Threats posed by genetic and antigenic diversity ofEimeria parasite on coccidiosis control. Genomic study on diversity ofEimeria parasite becomes imperative for effective vaccine design against coccidiosis.
Source: Journal of Parasitic Diseases - Category: Parasitology Source Type: research
LITFL • Life in the Fast Lane Medical Blog LITFL • Life in the Fast Lane Medical Blog - Emergency medicine and critical care medical education blog aka Tropical Travel Trouble 009 The diagnosis of HIV is no longer fatal and the term AIDS is becoming less frequent. In many countries, people with HIV are living longer than those with diabetes. This post will hopefully teach the basics of a complex disease and demystify some of the potential diseases you need to consider in those who are severely immunosuppressed. While trying to be comprehensive this post can not be exhaustive (as you can imagine any patient with ...
Source: Life in the Fast Lane - Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Tags: Clinical Cases Tropical Medicine AIDS art cryptococcoma cryptococcus HIV HIV1 HIV2 PEP PrEP TB toxoplasma tuberculoma Source Type: blogs
This study demonstrates the complexity of an effective vaccination. The immunoprotective epitope might be a conformational epitope that was recognized by the monoclonal mouse antibody but only weakly by the antibodies produced against the linear peptide leading to a divergent outcome between the passive and active immunization.
Source: Veterinary Parasitology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
ro SG Abstract Trypanosoma cruzi is a flagellated protozoan belonging to the Trypanosomatidae family, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease. Currently, there is neither a licensed vaccine nor effective treatment, characterizing an unmet clinical need. The IgY refers to the egg yolk immunoglobulin (Y=yolk) and its production and use are subjects of many studies due to the diversity of its diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Several researchers have shown that the use of specific IgY may prevent and/or control infectious and parasitic diseases. Based on these evidences, the aim of this study was to immunize chi...
Source: Journal of Immunological Methods - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: J Immunol Methods Source Type: research
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Source: Parasite Immunology - Category: Parasitology Authors: Tags: Commissioned Review or Article Source Type: research
Abstract Histomonosis is a parasitic disease of poultry with worldwide prevalence. The disease can cause morbidity and mortality in chicken and turkey flocks entailing severe economic losses. In the first half of the last century there was a high demand to control histomonosis as the turkey industry was severely affected by the disease. Consequently, numerous chemical compounds were tested for their efficacy against H. meleagridis with varying outcomes, altogether summarized and specified in this review. At the same time, preliminary attempts to protect birds with cultured histomonads indicated the possibility of ...
Source: Avian Pathology - Category: Pathology Authors: Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research
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