Dysfunctional Immune Response in Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure: It Takes Two to Tango
Conclusion Massive SI and immune cell paralysis associated with ACLF represent the extreme severity of CAID in response to an infectious or sterile challenge. The severe immune disturbance plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of the distinctive features of ACLF: organ failure and bacterial infection susceptibility. Excessive SI in ACLF results from the massive activation and dysfunction of an innate immune system challenged by increased PAMPs and DAMPs. SI leads to cell and tissue immunopathology contributing to hepatic and extrahepatic organ failure. Concomitantly, the course of ACLF is associated with a disproportionate compensatory anti-inflammatory response along with exhaustion and dysregulation of the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system, with the subsequent functional immune paralysis that confers a higher risk of infections and further ACLF progression. Therapies aimed at preventing the development of these immune disturbances in ACLF are novel promising strategies to improve survival in these patients. Author Contributions The manuscript was drafted by RM-M and AA. MA-M and AA critically reviewed the manuscript. All the authors approved the final draft for submission. The guarantor of the manuscript is AA. Funding This work was financed by grants from the Ministerio de Sanidad, Consumo y Bienestar Social, Instituto de Salud Carlos III (PI051871, CIBERehd) and Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (SAF 2017-86343-R) awarded to AA. Ciberhed is fun...
Publication date: November 2020Source: Urology Case Reports, Volume 33Author(s): Gina T. Baaklini, Misty J. Thompson, Kevin J. Krauland, Daniel R. Walker, Steven J. Hudak
Publication date: Available online 11 July 2020Source: European UrologyAuthor(s): Ashley M. Hopkins, Ganessan Kichenadasse, Christos S. Karapetis, Andrew Rowland, Michael J. Sorich
Publication date: Available online 11 July 2020Source: European UrologyAuthor(s): Roderick C.N. van den Bergh, Olivier Rouvière, Theodorus van der Kwast, Erik Briers, Thomas Van den Broeck, Philip Cornford, Marcus G. Cumberbatch, Maria De Santis, Stefano Fanti, Nicola Fossati, Giorgio Gandaglia, Nikolaos Grivas, Jeremy Grummet, Thomas B. Lam, Michael Lardas, Matthew Liew, Lisa Moris, Malcolm D. Mason, Nicolas Mottet, Daniela E. Oprea-Lager
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Publication date: Available online 10 July 2020Source: Gynecologic Oncology ReportsAuthor(s): McKayla J. Riggs, Miranda Lin, Joseph Kim, Prakash Pandalai, Charles Dietrich
Publication date: Available online 10 July 2020Source: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular DiseasesAuthor(s): Caterina Bonfiglio, Carla Maria Leone, Liciana Vaz de Arruda Silveira, Rocco Guerra, Giovanni Misciagna, Maria Gabriella Caruso, Irene Bruno, Claudia Buongiorno, Angelo Campanella, Vito Maria Bernardo Guerra, Maria Notarnicola, Valentina Deflorio, Isabella Franco, Antonella Bianco, Antonella Mirizzi, Laura Rosana Aballay, Anna Maria Cisternino, Paolo Sorino, Pasqua Letizia Pesole, Alberto Rubén Osella
Conclusions: HRU and costs from HCT to PTLD were high and more than doubled within 1-year post-PTLD. PTLD patients who died had ∼7 times higher costs than those who lived, driven by hospitalizations. Effective treatments are needed to reduce the burden of PTLD. PMID: 32643493 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
CONCLUSION: OCT-A is an important tool for the diagnosis of both naïve and fibrotic CNV in BMD patients; it is a non-invasive method for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of neovascular lesions during follow-up. Our results have shown a cyclic remodeling of treated CNV in BMD patients using both PDT and IV. PMID: 32643503 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Authors: Liu K, Cao J, Shi X, Wang L, Zhao T Abstract Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) can immortally self-renew in culture with a high proliferation rate, and they possess unique metabolic characteristics that facilitate pluripotency regulation. Here, we review recent progress in understanding the mechanisms that link cellular metabolism and homeostasis to pluripotency regulation, with particular emphasis on pathways involving amino acid metabolism, lipid metabolism, the ubiquitin-proteasome system and autophagy. Metabolism of amino acids and lipids is tightly coupled to epigenetic modification, organelle remodeling ...
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