Loss of proteins associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis affect lysosomal acidification via different routes.

Loss of proteins associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis affect lysosomal acidification via different routes. Autophagy. 2019 Apr 28;:1-3 Authors: Şentürk M, Mao D, Bellen HJ Abstract Abnormal accumulation of proteins is a hallmark of a variety of neurological diseases including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Maintenance of protein homeostasis (proteostasis) in neurons via proteasomal and macroautophagy/autophagy-lysosomal degradation is thought to be central for proper neuronal function and survival. We recently reported evolutionarily conserved roles for two ALS-linked proteins, UBQLN2 (ubiquilin 2) and VAPB, in regulation of lysosomal degradation. Ubiquilins are required for v-ATPase-mediated lysosomal acidification, whereas VAPs are required for the PtdIns4P-mediated endo-lysosomal trafficking pathway. PMID: 31032688 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Autophagy - Category: Cytology Authors: Tags: Autophagy Source Type: research

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CONCLUSIONS: The varied pharmacologic mechanisms of NBP involve many complex molecular mechanisms; however, there many unknown pharmacologic effects await further study. PMID: 31205106 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Chinese Medical Journal - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Chin Med J (Engl) Source Type: research
AbstractLysosomes are acidic, membrane-bound organelles that serve as the primary catabolic compartment of the cell. They are crucial to a variety of cellular processes from nutrient storage to autophagy. Given the diversity of lysosomal functions, it is unsurprising that lysosomes are also emerging as important players in aging. Lysosomal dysfunction is implicated in several aging-related neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer ’s, Parkinson’s, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/frontotemporal dementia, and Huntington’s. Although the precise role of lysosomes in the aging brain is not well-elucidated, ...
Source: Neurotherapeutics - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 5 June 2019Source: Seminars in Cell &Developmental BiologyAuthor(s): Saskia Hutten, Dorothee DormannAbstractDefects in nucleocytoplasmic transport have been associated with several neurodegenerative disorders and, in particular, the formation of pathological protein aggregates characteristic for the respective disease. However, whether impaired nucleocytoplasmic transport is a consequence of such aggregates or rather contributes to their formation is still mostly unclear.In this review, we summarize recent findings how both soluble and stationary components of the nucleocytoplasmic tr...
Source: Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology - Category: Cytology Source Type: research
Abstract Microtubule-associated protein Tau (MAPT) and GGGGCC (G4C2) repeat expansion in chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 (C9ORF72) are the major known genetic causes of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and other neurodegenerative diseases, such as Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). Although expanded G4C2 repeats and Tau traditionally are associated with different clinical presentations, pathological and genetic studies have suggested a strong association between them. Here we demonstrate a strong genetic interaction between expanded G4C2 repeats and Tau. We found that co-expression of expanded G4C2 repeats and T...
Source: Neurobiology of Disease - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Neurobiol Dis Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 4 June 2019Source: Seminars in Cell &Developmental BiologyAuthor(s): Nicol Birsa, Matthew Peter Bentham, Pietro FrattaAbstractTAR DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) and fused in sarcoma (FUS) are RNA binding proteins (RBPs) primarily located in the nucleus, and involved in numerous aspects of RNA metabolism. Both proteins can be found to be depleted from the nucleus and accumulated in cytoplasmic inclusions in two major neurodegenerative conditions, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia. Recent evidences suggest that, in addition to their nuclear functions, b...
Source: Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology - Category: Cytology Source Type: research
AbstractGGGGCC repeat expansions in theC9ORF72 gene are the most common cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia (c9ALS/FTD). It has been reported that hexanucleotide repeat expansions inC9ORF72 produce five dipeptide repeat (DPR) proteins by an unconventional repeat-associated non-ATG (RAN) translation. Within the five DPR proteins, poly-PR and poly-GR that contain arginine are more toxic than the other DPRs (poly-GA, poly-GP, and poly-PA). Here, we demonstrated that poly-PR peptides transferred into cells by endocytosis in a clathrin-dependent manner, leading to endoplasmic reticulum stress and ...
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 28 May 2019Source: Seminars in Cell &Developmental BiologyAuthor(s): Laura Strohm, Christian BehrendsAbstractNeuronal cell death is the main pathological feature of chronic neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). As age is strongly linked to NDs, these diseases are one of the leading medical and societal challenges faced by the rapidly aging western societies. Despite the increasing prevalence, the causes and mechanisms behind most NDs are still vague...
Source: Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology - Category: Cytology Source Type: research
AbstractThe genetic variant rs72824905-G (minor allele) in thePLCG2 gene was previously associated with a reduced Alzheimer ’s disease risk (AD). The role ofPLCG2 in immune system signaling suggests it may also protect against other neurodegenerative diseases and possibly associates with longevity. We studied the effect of the rs72824905-G on seven neurodegenerative diseases and longevity, using 53,627 patients, 3,516 long-lived individuals and 149,290 study-matched controls. We replicated the association of rs72824905-G with reduced AD risk and we found an association with reduced risk of dementia with Lewy bodies (...
Source: Acta Neuropathologica - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: The varied pharmacological mechanisms of NBP involve many complex molecular mechanisms; however, there many unknown pharmacological effects await further study.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0. PMID: 31107716 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Chinese Medical Journal - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Chin Med J (Engl) Source Type: research
In this study, a significant (30%) increase in maximum lifespan of mice was found after nonablative transplantation of 100 million nucleated bone marrow (BM) cells from young donors, initiated at the age that is equivalent to 75 years for humans. Moreover, rejuvenation was accompanied by a high degree of BM chimerism for the nonablative approach. Six months after the transplantation, 28% of recipients' BM cells were of donor origin. The relatively high chimerism efficiency that we found is most likely due to the advanced age of our recipients having a depleted BM pool. In addition to the higher incorporation rates, ...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
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